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Welcome to the History Makers Project. Could you please
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introduce yourself for us? Sure. I'm Robert Reiser
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, I'm Associate dean for research in the College of
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Education at Florida State University and I was a professor
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in the instruction systems program there For over 35 years
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. That's wonderful. Can you tell us a little
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bit about your career path? Where did you start
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? Sure. I started my graduate training at Arizona
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State University and the instructional technology program there and immediately
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upon completing that back in 1975, I think how
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long ago it was? Um I got a position
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at Florida State and thought I'd be there three years
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And here it is, about 36 37 years later
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and I'm still there and I've changed some of my
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positions at Florida State, but I've remained at that
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university. So you were there for with some pretty
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big names in our Oh, sure to work with
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walt dick bob, can you bob, morgan bob
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, Branson, and roger Kaufman. Those are some
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of the people who preceded me. And then of
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course over the years we had another great names like
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more seat risk, what wager, john Keller.
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So it was really a pleasure to be working such
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big names in the field all these years now.
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Let's go back just a little to Arizona. Who
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was your mentor there? Sure Howard Sullivan, he
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was my major professor there and he along with wilted
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with two major mentors to me throughout my career,
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Howard taught me how to be a good researcher,
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had to write up research. Great right um helped
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hold my riding skills, how to be an effective
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instructional designer, learned a lot of my instructional science
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skills from Howard and still friendly with Howard to this
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day, we keep in touch regularly. Then once
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I got to florida state and joined the faculty Baltic
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really became my mentor there with his design background and
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his straight arrow personality. Give me a task and
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I'll do it, served as a really a good
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role model for me throughout my career and walt and
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I work together friday books, articles, projects and
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he and I are still friends to the state.
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In fact he and I presented here at this conference
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. That's exciting. Tell us a little bit about
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some of the situ had written uh Four books.
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The first book I wrote was selecting media for instruction
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. That was back in the 80s when the media
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that we had was quite different in the media available
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today and bob daniel and I wrote that book together
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, bob and I were working on a project for
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the Army Research Institute helping design instruction that would enable
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army officers to design instruction and use the appropriate media
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design that instruction and the result of that project.
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We came with the media selection. Then he and
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I wrote a book that time. That was the
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first book I wrote. Uh later on working with
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Wolf Dick, I realized that the systematic design of
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instruction book he had written with Blue Carry, which
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was an excellent book, was like most likely too
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detailed for teachers. And I always felt that teaching
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teachers how to use instructional design would be a very
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valuable thing to do. So walt and I worked
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together on designing a very simplified version of that book
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for teachers. I think the first edition that was
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called planning effective instruction. We were happy with the
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book, but it didn't get the use that we
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thought so several years later we completely redid the book
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still focusing on instruction sign for teachers. I think
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it was then called instructional planning a guide for teachers
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And that was the third book and then most recently
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and I've been doing this for now. Over 10
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years. I have worked on transit issues and instructional
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design and technology with a former student of mine,
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Jack Dempsey was the university of South Alabama that got
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started because when I was teaching at a florida state
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and Jack was a student in my classes. I
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use a lot of journal articles, recent journalism to
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inform students about recent practices in our field. And
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about 10 years after Jack graduated from the Perm said
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bob instead of getting new resources every semester in finding
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journal articles, how about if we put together a
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book on trends in our field And having been in
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the field so long? I knew a lot of
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the big names in the field and was able to
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call on them to write chapters on the various areas
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in which they had expertise. So in 2002,
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the first edition of that book came out, it
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proved to be pretty popular. We did a 2nd
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edition in 2007. And the third edition with 2012
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. Copyright just came out recently. In a matter
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of fact, just won the DND Outstanding Book Awards
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. I'm really proud of that book and I intend
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to do 1/4 edition in the not too distant future
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. Well, tell me what was the primary focus
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of your work uh in your research? Wow.
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Over the years? It changed in so many ways
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. Uh, you know, some people keep the
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same research agenda for many years and go into it
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depth. Maybe the entire career I've kind of jumped
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around. I started out When I was first the
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doctor soon and then mostly the 1st 10 years of
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my career, once I became a finger focusing on
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mastery learning how we can get the range instructional conditions
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that most of our students master the skills that they're
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taught. So I worked on that for about 10
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or 12 years, there was a need 70s through
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the mid 80s. Then when my kids came along
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, my research interests turned to things that were kind
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of relevant to young Children. So for example,
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a lot of research on what Children can learn from
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Sesame Street and how we can have parents interact with
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kids as they're watching Sesame Street, so as to
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help them learn more. And then it's, my
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kids started getting into computer based instruction and games.
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I started looking at how we can evaluate the instructional
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effectiveness of computer based instruction and well, Dick and
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I created a model for evaluating instruction effectiveness of computer
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based instruction uh and examine how effective some games have
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reported to be very effective work or not. So
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we worked on that for a number of years and
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so you would you would say that your focus has
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evolved over time. Yeah. You know, if
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you had a character is my research injured, I
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think I'm really interested in coming up with practical solutions
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to real world problems, more of a applied research
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focus and a basic research records. And I think
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the areas I discussed with you will fit in that
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marina. That's that's very helpful for the field.
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Now, how did you get interested in this field
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? Maybe your undergraduate? Did you? Sure.
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Yeah. I originally thought I'd be a classroom teacher
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but interestingly when I was student teaching, one of
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the problems that I found was I was spending powers
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designing a single lesson. Little did I know that
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my whole career would end up doing, doing that
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very thing designing instruction. So I decided you know
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, I'd like to stay in the classroom but maybe
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not be a classroom teacher. So I thought maybe
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I'd become a slide library media specialist and I applied
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to a number of programs to major in that area
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and one day I got a call from Arizona state
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, they had a joint school library media instructional design
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program. And the professor there who is the head
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of the program's name is very in Gerlach called and
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said you know we've looked at your records and we'd
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really like you to join the perm but we'd like
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you to be in the instructional design area, I
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had no idea what instructional design was I asked for
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and so what structural designers do. And he said
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to me, well you know, Our graduates working
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three areas. Some of them go into academia,
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some of them go into business and industry and some
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of them go in as civilians working for the military
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. So that's pretty good. I'll consider that when
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I got out there I found that they only had
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three graduates wanted going into each of the three areas
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. So I kind of fell into the field.
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But once I got out there, the Arizona state
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and started taking courses and instructions on it. So
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that it was a really good for me because it
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seemed to me that be a good instructions on you
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have to be systematic. You have to be organized
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things that I am compulsive. Let's have to be
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creative to be a good instructional design. You can't
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just do very basic boring instruction. And those are
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all things that I both towns that I had a
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pretty good, right? So given those sets of
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personal characteristics and the characteristics needed to be successful and
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stretched, it seemed to be a good fit and
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it's worked out really beautiful for me. Well,
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I have to tell you just a real quick story
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that when I came down and I was interviewing some
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of the students at florida state. One of the
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I think was one of the Coast Guard students said
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that dr research really walks the talk and he said
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that guy is a living example of what he's teaching
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. And he said, and at the end of
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class he always sits down and writes out what went
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right and what were you like that? That's true
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. You really impressed? Well, that's nice to
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hear. I really always try very hard to practice
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what I preach. And I often we get feedback
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to that effect made me work even harder to do
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that. That's great. Thanks for sharing. Sure
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, Sure. How would you describe your research interests
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and aspirations and how they were at the beginning of
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your program of your career and how they've changed over
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time. Sure. One thing I've always been interested
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, as I said earlier was doing practical research and
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I've talked about how my research is going to be
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practically focused. Another aspect of my job that I've
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always enjoyed and this was an aspiration for my first
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uh this field was to be a good teacher and
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I've really worked hard fine tuning my teaching skills so
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that I am effective teacher and that the students learn
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a lot of my classes and enjoy something. That's
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been something I continue to work on to this very
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day. My wife often says me bob, you've
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been teaching a course for of course for 32 years
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while you're staying up, you know, revising it
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tonight. Well, it's just me because I want
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to do the job in the classroom. Another thing
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that I've really enjoyed, I didn't know this at
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the beginning of my career was taking leadership positions in
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organizations. I was program leader, the instructional systems
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program for six years. I was department share for
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nine years now I'm associate dean for research and I
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really enjoyed when I have the opportunity to move an
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organization of program forward in a certain direction. I
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really enjoy doing that and seeing the fruits of my
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labor, how the program becomes better, how the
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department becomes better helping people in those organizations. Is
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that something that wasn't initially an aspiration of mine,
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but once I got into leadership roles, I really
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started enjoying that as well. Sounds like you were
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moving people forward in their careers. Yeah. Yes
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, definitely. Yeah, and I really like that
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now. What were some of the major ideas or
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approaches that stimulated your professional growth? Sure. You
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know, I've always felt that the notion of being
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very clear about your goals and objectives are is really
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at the heart of our field. If you know
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where you're going, then you can plan how to
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get there. So that's been something that's underlying all
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my, my teaching, a lot of my research
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to know what I'm trying to accomplish, then make
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taking on activities that enable me to accomplish that a
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related notion is instructional alignment. The need to make
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sure that the things you're teaching are designed to help
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students acquire specific outcomes and I really work hard to
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see that I'm not giving students unnecessary stuff that I'm
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teaching, the things they need and require certain skills
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. It's also important to motivate your students. So
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I worked very hard to create enjoyable activities that will
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help my students obtain the goals. They have another
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key concept in our field that underlies a lot of
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my work. Again, this is mostly with regard
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to my teaching, is the whole notion of formative
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evaluation, which is a fancy word for trying it
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out. Yeah, gathering some data as to whether
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it works not And then revising accordingly. And as
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I said earlier and I could be teaching a course
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for 30 years. I can still go into a
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classroom not get it right, but then take what
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didn't go well and revise it to make it better
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the next time. The last thing that's been real
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important, I think in my professional develop is being
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a good listener, is an instructional designer. You
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really have to listen to what the other person we
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all enjoy talking, enjoying that right now actually,
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but also being a good listener, hearing what the
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other person says and then be able to record that
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and use that information to help design better instruction.
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Plus you gain the person's um confidence when when you
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when they realize that you're listening to what they have
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to say. So those are some of the values
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or ideas that have geared my practices in this field
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and you you mentioned your work with making sure that
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students get what the skills that they're going to need
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um that kind of flows into your work on competencies
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. Can you talk about a little of your involvement
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in in that room? Sure, yeah. For
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the past six years, been out of it for
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about a year now, I was involved with skippy
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, the international Board of Standards for training performance and
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instruction. I think I got that right. And
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what we did during that period least what I did
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during that period is work to revise the list of
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skills, instruction design or competencies, instruction diners need
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to be effective the field. We just recently finished
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that work about a year ago. It will be
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published soon and its entire new list of competencies needed
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by instructional designers and the absurdity competencies. Previous editions
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have been very widely accepted and we're hoping that will
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be the case this set of competencies as well and
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they're used pretty much across all different careers. Yes
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. Yeah that's that's right. Business and industry military
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where they have people working instruction design, certainly higher
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education academic programs geared their standards based upon the stiffy
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competency. So yeah, it's had a pretty good
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impact. I'm hoping the next additional do the same
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now. What were some of the most important trends
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that you felt were going on during your career?
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Well of course early in my career was really an
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average the notion of mastery learning and how we can
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design instructions that most students will acquire the skills we
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want them to. And I think a lot of
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those concepts are still relevant today, even though we
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don't hear the term mystery learning use very much today
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. Um But you know it's interesting rather than talking
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about new technological innovations and so on which you all
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have had positive impacts upon our field. I like
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to always go back to the instructional design basics.
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I think the whole notion of being very clear about
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where you're going and making sure that your instruction is
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designed to help your students get their regardless of the
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medium that you use is really the key to success
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in our field. So I'm happy to note nutrients
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and I feel I have a book insurance in the
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field, but I think it's those basics that set
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of structural designers, part from people who just media
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professionals. I mean they play an important role but
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without good instructional design, uh the use of media
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is not going to make that much of a difference
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. Also motivational activities. I think it's really important
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for us this instruction science to design, construction is
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motivating, that's creative that will excite our learners and
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make them want to learn. So my goal is
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to get learners acquire the skills you want them to
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acquire and to enjoy it while they're learning those skills
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. And it's by being very clear about my goals
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and aligning my instruction to my goals that I'm able
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to do that. Um what do you think of
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some of the more recent trends that have been coming
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out in the field? Well, certainly, uh
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in the past 10 years, online learning has had
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a major impact on our field. We're offering many
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more of our courses online, not just us in
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our profession, but it, All areas of higher
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education now, even K 12, a lot of
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online courses. So I think that's a very important
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trend. I have some concerns about him as well
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, and that's the role that the instructor plays in
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the online courses, particularly in higher education. I
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think an instructor to hire a, in an online
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course needs to work hard to make sure that not
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only the students interact with one another, but the
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instructor provides good feedback and information to the students because
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it's the instructor oftentimes has the knowledge and skills that
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need to be conveyed. And I've noticed at least
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in some courses, a tendency on instructors to kind
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of lay back and let the students interact with another
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without providing the feedback and guidance to enrich the experience
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. So I think online learning is a very important
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trend when that's really open up education to people who
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aren't able to get it before. I think we
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really need to be very careful about designing interesting online
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courses courses that promote a lot of interaction, but
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not just interaction among students, but among students along
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with faculty now, who are some of the people
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you needed to, you who are some of the
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other people that over the course of your career have
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impacted your growth. And sure, well, as
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I said earlier, the two, the two major
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uh, mentors in my career, first, Howard
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Sullivan was a student to this day in walter dick
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. But in addition to that, I was so
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fortunate to end up in florida state because there was
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so many well known figures there, all of whom
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were just wonderful to me, bob morgan who was
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the head of the florida state instruction system for one
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actually brought all those big names to florida state was
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the person who originally hired me at florida state uh
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, as an instructional designer actually that was part time
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faculty, mainly as instruction design and bob was really
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instrumental in giving me the opportunity to move forward.
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In fact, I have a name professorship now and
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it's robert M morgan professor of instruction systems named after
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bob family. The other figure of questions, bob
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canyon had an office right across from bob daniel.
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I couldn't believe after having read about him so much
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in all my courses that here I am in the
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same office suite with bob and I remember the first
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time bob came into my office and said, well
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, really? So why do you think about this
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? They actually asked me a question, I remember
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going home to my wife and say you're not gonna
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believe this bob gagne, asked me a question today
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about our profession. And so uh bob was a
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wonderful mentor. We work together on this book,
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selecting media for instruction. He asked me to write
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a book. This was in the late Jimmy,
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a book chapter in the late 1980s on the history
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of our field. He had a book called instructional
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technology foundations, I believe the name was. And
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he was getting all these big names in the field
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to write for him and he had only been out
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maybe 8, 10 years. And he came in
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to me one day and said bob, would you
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like to write a chapter for the book on the
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history of the field? I said probably lived this
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history. But you know, I I learned a
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lesson there because I took I was reluctant, but
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I took on the task and I tell my students
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this all the time. You know, sometimes you're
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given something, she thinks a very steep challenge for
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you, but take it on because I can read
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great benefits. And you know, as a result
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of bobby asked me to do that. I've kind
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of become kind of one of the historians of the
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field. It was all because of bob giving me
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that opportunity to do it. So again, Howard
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, Sullivan walter dick bob morgan bob. Can you
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were among the main people, mentors and helped me
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in my career. And today a lot of people
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still work like Morsi Tarasco have also been very instrumental
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in the film. Yes. Who are some of
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those people like Marcy that you've collaborated with? Sure
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. Well, uh worked with Morsi several research studies
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together. She's written a chapter from my book at
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florida state. I've worked with what wager and john
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Keller, bob Branson, roger kaufman, all those
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people, we've worked together designing courses, doing some
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research together. And then I have loads of colleagues
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from other universities, Kent gustafson who used to be
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at the University of Georgia. My can if it
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was a student along well, Mike actually studied Arizona's
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a few years after me, but Mike's another one
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. Steve ross used to be the editor of E
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T R and D. I could go on Dave
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Merrill Donnie lee jim Morris. So I could go
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on naming 15 or 20 people who have worked with
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over the years. A lot of them recently with
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the various editions of my text reader. Richie,
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you just interviewed a few a few minutes ago,
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so I'll stop right there, but I can name
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many more. It's been a wonderful career and you
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know, it's amazing after you've been in the field
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of one period, get to know almost everybody in
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the field and it's just a pleasure to see them
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each year interact with them and in my case,
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actually have them work with me as they write chapters
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from my book. That's right. And what do
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you think is the greatest accomplishment of your career?
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And one, okay, I want to mention two
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things. one is when I want the University Distinguished
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Teaching Award Every year at Florida State, they give
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out one award for the person who offered his or
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her career has done an outstanding job of teaching and
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I was the first one from the College of Education
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ever to win that it wouldn't. And that to
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me was like one of my ultimate accomplishment because I've
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always felt I'm really devoted to my teaching, I
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really work hard and to get that award to recognize
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my accomplishment of areas was something I was extremely proud
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of. The second thing is the trends and issues
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. Little did I know that when I first did
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that book, that it would have the impact that
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it's had. Um we've done several studies that have
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shown this book to be among the most frequently used
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books in the most recent study along with wool ticks
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can carry book, the most frequently required book and
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programs in our field. So I'm really proud of
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the fact that I put this book together. I
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have to thank all the authors of the chapters because
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I've only written a few chapters in the book has
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have checked, but we get lots of others to
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write chapters. It's because of the work of those
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authors and my checks, putting it all together.
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That that book has been as successful as it has
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. And I to the state people come up to
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me oh, dr research. I really liked that
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book. So I'm really proud of that as well
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. Um and how would you like to be remembered
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? Wow, that's interesting. Well, first of
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all, I hope I remember it as a good
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person. Somebody who people enjoyed interacting with, who
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was a caring, hardworking individual who helped move his
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program, his department, his college and this profession
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forward. And if I'm remembered in those regards will
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be very happy. Well, thank you. Sure
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about this has been great. It has an excellent