WEBVTT
1
00:00:11.339 --> 00:00:13.699 A:middle L:90%
Well, good morning, everyone. Thank you so
2
00:00:13.699 --> 00:00:18.269 A:middle L:90%
much for coming to the library workshop on exploring innovative
3
00:00:18.269 --> 00:00:21.839 A:middle L:90%
and open educational resources. My name is Anita Walls
4
00:00:21.850 --> 00:00:24.030 A:middle L:90%
. I know many of you and, um,
5
00:00:24.039 --> 00:00:26.660 A:middle L:90%
delighted that you're here. Delighted that we have a
6
00:00:27.039 --> 00:00:33.399 A:middle L:90%
a panel of three very talented professors who are working
7
00:00:33.409 --> 00:00:38.109 A:middle L:90%
on learning resources for their students and are going to
8
00:00:38.109 --> 00:00:40.939 A:middle L:90%
share with us some of their work before we get
9
00:00:40.939 --> 00:00:43.329 A:middle L:90%
started. And before I introduced them, I would
10
00:00:43.329 --> 00:00:47.409 A:middle L:90%
like to frame this conversation. Um, there are
11
00:00:47.420 --> 00:00:51.159 A:middle L:90%
a lot of different, um, a lot of
12
00:00:51.170 --> 00:00:55.380 A:middle L:90%
different people that are not here that fit within the
13
00:00:55.390 --> 00:00:59.090 A:middle L:90%
theme of open and innovative educational resources. And I
14
00:00:59.090 --> 00:01:00.200 A:middle L:90%
just want to talk about where we are and kind
15
00:01:00.200 --> 00:01:06.709 A:middle L:90%
of the continuum. Um, there are faculty at
16
00:01:06.709 --> 00:01:08.340 A:middle L:90%
the university, obviously who used many different types of
17
00:01:08.340 --> 00:01:12.099 A:middle L:90%
resources in their instruction, everything from off the shelf
18
00:01:12.099 --> 00:01:17.859 A:middle L:90%
textbooks to digital learning objects and beyond, um,
19
00:01:18.640 --> 00:01:22.730 A:middle L:90%
a number of faculty that are somewhere in the middle
20
00:01:22.900 --> 00:01:26.060 A:middle L:90%
, um, faculty that I talked to in preparation
21
00:01:26.060 --> 00:01:29.750 A:middle L:90%
for this panel, um, included some people who
22
00:01:29.750 --> 00:01:32.739 A:middle L:90%
are using custom textbooks. Um, they'll work with
23
00:01:32.739 --> 00:01:34.319 A:middle L:90%
the publisher to pull a certain number of chapters out
24
00:01:34.319 --> 00:01:38.959 A:middle L:90%
of a commercial textbook at their own and, um
25
00:01:40.040 --> 00:01:42.680 A:middle L:90%
, published and how students purchase the resulting product.
26
00:01:42.689 --> 00:01:46.409 A:middle L:90%
Um, I talked to people who are working on
27
00:01:46.420 --> 00:01:49.939 A:middle L:90%
interactive textbooks, and I talked to people who are
28
00:01:49.939 --> 00:01:52.030 A:middle L:90%
working on things that are not text books at all
29
00:01:52.030 --> 00:01:56.180 A:middle L:90%
that are for learning for students learning inside and outside
30
00:01:56.180 --> 00:01:57.640 A:middle L:90%
the classroom. Um, so this is a broader
31
00:01:57.640 --> 00:02:01.439 A:middle L:90%
discussion, and I think most of us are familiar
32
00:02:01.439 --> 00:02:07.709 A:middle L:90%
with the off the shelf and possibly custom. Um
33
00:02:07.719 --> 00:02:09.219 A:middle L:90%
, but where we are, the little star,
34
00:02:09.229 --> 00:02:12.969 A:middle L:90%
um, kind of shows you that we are very
35
00:02:12.969 --> 00:02:16.159 A:middle L:90%
far on the digital side of things. And,
36
00:02:16.169 --> 00:02:22.270 A:middle L:90%
um, we are not representing the other section.
37
00:02:22.280 --> 00:02:25.349 A:middle L:90%
So I just want to point that out that you
38
00:02:25.349 --> 00:02:31.009 A:middle L:90%
don't have to use computer code to participate in using
39
00:02:31.009 --> 00:02:38.069 A:middle L:90%
and developing digital learning objects. Um, another point
40
00:02:38.080 --> 00:02:39.080 A:middle L:90%
that I wanted to bring up is that there is
41
00:02:39.080 --> 00:02:45.030 A:middle L:90%
some cost shifting involved in the conversation about open educational
42
00:02:45.030 --> 00:02:47.090 A:middle L:90%
resources. Um, off the text off the shelf
43
00:02:47.090 --> 00:02:52.310 A:middle L:90%
textbook cost students money. Um, custom textbooks cost
44
00:02:52.310 --> 00:02:55.129 A:middle L:90%
student students money. Digital learning objects. Uh,
45
00:02:55.139 --> 00:02:58.729 A:middle L:90%
they could cost students money or some people give them
46
00:02:58.729 --> 00:03:00.530 A:middle L:90%
away. So who cares that cost. Um,
47
00:03:00.539 --> 00:03:05.469 A:middle L:90%
this is another, um, Continuum, another kind
48
00:03:05.469 --> 00:03:09.310 A:middle L:90%
of question that we see in, um in this
49
00:03:09.319 --> 00:03:14.449 A:middle L:90%
area. So we are somewhere along the spectrum here
50
00:03:14.449 --> 00:03:15.840 A:middle L:90%
, on the on the right hand side. In
51
00:03:15.840 --> 00:03:19.759 A:middle L:90%
terms of cost, the the digital objects that these
52
00:03:19.770 --> 00:03:23.180 A:middle L:90%
gentlemen have developed are either, um, much more
53
00:03:23.180 --> 00:03:25.849 A:middle L:90%
affordable than a regular textbook or are free, um
54
00:03:25.939 --> 00:03:30.949 A:middle L:90%
, or open in terms of their distribution of these
55
00:03:30.949 --> 00:03:37.389 A:middle L:90%
items. And then finally, um, open educational
56
00:03:37.389 --> 00:03:42.550 A:middle L:90%
resources include all different sorts of media you see around
57
00:03:42.550 --> 00:03:45.810 A:middle L:90%
the room that there are a lot of different media
58
00:03:45.810 --> 00:03:47.939 A:middle L:90%
examples. Um, we have textbooks in the back
59
00:03:47.939 --> 00:03:53.360 A:middle L:90%
. We have the rotating three d anatomy dog in
60
00:03:53.360 --> 00:03:55.979 A:middle L:90%
the corner. Um, on this side, um
61
00:03:55.990 --> 00:04:01.210 A:middle L:90%
, there are a number of interactive simulations that are
62
00:04:01.219 --> 00:04:05.669 A:middle L:90%
scrolling through. Um, some of these things can
63
00:04:05.680 --> 00:04:10.770 A:middle L:90%
be found, Can be evaluated, can be adopted
64
00:04:11.740 --> 00:04:14.750 A:middle L:90%
for use in the classroom. Um, others of
65
00:04:14.750 --> 00:04:17.439 A:middle L:90%
them are created. And so the people who are
66
00:04:17.439 --> 00:04:20.339 A:middle L:90%
not here today in that discussion are those who are
67
00:04:20.350 --> 00:04:23.939 A:middle L:90%
adopting and using other people's materials. But we have
68
00:04:23.939 --> 00:04:27.000 A:middle L:90%
the pleasure of these three gentlemen being here to share
69
00:04:27.000 --> 00:04:29.689 A:middle L:90%
with us. Um, their work in creating them
70
00:04:29.699 --> 00:04:31.149 A:middle L:90%
. So and then a final plug. Um,
71
00:04:31.240 --> 00:04:35.560 A:middle L:90%
pedagogical decisions are not optional. Any instructional material that
72
00:04:35.939 --> 00:04:39.639 A:middle L:90%
that you may adopt in your classroom? Uh huh
73
00:04:40.339 --> 00:04:45.560 A:middle L:90%
. Needs to Obviously we need to think of of
74
00:04:45.569 --> 00:04:46.600 A:middle L:90%
how you would actually use it. What are the
75
00:04:46.600 --> 00:04:50.990 A:middle L:90%
objectives? What's your philosophy In terms of of using
76
00:04:51.000 --> 00:04:57.500 A:middle L:90%
those, then lastly, um, I think we
77
00:04:57.500 --> 00:04:59.470 A:middle L:90%
have already talked. We have to kind of two
78
00:04:59.470 --> 00:05:01.199 A:middle L:90%
different groups. They have the people who are consuming
79
00:05:01.199 --> 00:05:06.129 A:middle L:90%
resources who are finding, evaluating, customizing, integrating
80
00:05:06.449 --> 00:05:11.259 A:middle L:90%
. And then we have people who are producing and
81
00:05:11.839 --> 00:05:16.230 A:middle L:90%
producers obviously are can use the materials to, um
82
00:05:16.240 --> 00:05:21.920 A:middle L:90%
so mhm. Just a quick word about the workshop
83
00:05:21.920 --> 00:05:25.629 A:middle L:90%
afterwards. I know some of you are staying,
84
00:05:25.629 --> 00:05:27.730 A:middle L:90%
and some of you are going, um, if
85
00:05:27.730 --> 00:05:29.519 A:middle L:90%
you are staying with us, we're going to have
86
00:05:29.519 --> 00:05:33.480 A:middle L:90%
a World Cafe style workshop for different stations around,
87
00:05:33.490 --> 00:05:36.689 A:middle L:90%
and depending on how the conversation goes, I have
88
00:05:36.689 --> 00:05:41.649 A:middle L:90%
some topics pre programmed into those computers for you to
89
00:05:41.649 --> 00:05:45.220 A:middle L:90%
discuss. Um, if you if we go in
90
00:05:45.220 --> 00:05:46.699 A:middle L:90%
a completely different direction, we can change those.
91
00:05:46.709 --> 00:05:50.670 A:middle L:90%
Um, if that's helpful, So we'll break into
92
00:05:50.670 --> 00:05:55.540 A:middle L:90%
that at 11 o'clock. So, yeah, we'd
93
00:05:55.540 --> 00:06:00.439 A:middle L:90%
like to introduce our speakers today and starting on my
94
00:06:00.449 --> 00:06:02.149 A:middle L:90%
right. Um, Dr Cliff Schafer is a professor
95
00:06:02.149 --> 00:06:04.990 A:middle L:90%
in the Department of computer Science at Virginia Tech.
96
00:06:05.000 --> 00:06:10.769 A:middle L:90%
His research interests include computational biology algorithm, visualization,
97
00:06:10.769 --> 00:06:15.110 A:middle L:90%
digital education, visualization, spatial data structures, algorithm
98
00:06:15.110 --> 00:06:17.069 A:middle L:90%
designed an analysis and data structures. He leads the
99
00:06:17.069 --> 00:06:21.800 A:middle L:90%
ALGO Algorithm Visualization Research group Averaging Antagonists been awarded multiple
100
00:06:21.800 --> 00:06:26.629 A:middle L:90%
NSF grants related to his work on algorithm visualization,
101
00:06:26.639 --> 00:06:29.500 A:middle L:90%
including, most recently, the Open de ESA Active
102
00:06:29.509 --> 00:06:33.519 A:middle L:90%
book project. Um, Dr. Bruce McKinnon is
103
00:06:33.529 --> 00:06:36.750 A:middle L:90%
a professor of music and serves as the director of
104
00:06:36.750 --> 00:06:43.439 A:middle L:90%
the Radford University Center for Music Technology composer and music
105
00:06:43.439 --> 00:06:46.670 A:middle L:90%
theorist. His work attempts to explain the parameters of
106
00:06:46.670 --> 00:06:49.980 A:middle L:90%
musical expression in modernist and postmodern music and its relationship
107
00:06:49.990 --> 00:06:54.670 A:middle L:90%
to visual art and poetry. His interest in technology
108
00:06:54.670 --> 00:06:58.879 A:middle L:90%
focuses on intelligent interactive systems, and his work with
109
00:06:58.879 --> 00:07:00.990 A:middle L:90%
algorithm composition models lead to the development of real time
110
00:07:01.000 --> 00:07:05.670 A:middle L:90%
interactive computer music systems, a CD ROM time chance
111
00:07:05.670 --> 00:07:09.819 A:middle L:90%
released on the Capstone Recordings label and an active performance
112
00:07:09.819 --> 00:07:13.170 A:middle L:90%
schedule. Dr. Martin has pioneered the development of
113
00:07:13.170 --> 00:07:15.800 A:middle L:90%
musical applications for mobile devices in an ongoing effort to
114
00:07:15.800 --> 00:07:19.959 A:middle L:90%
use emerging technologies as a core means of music distribution
115
00:07:19.970 --> 00:07:24.259 A:middle L:90%
. He currently has three applications available on the iTunes
116
00:07:24.269 --> 00:07:29.050 A:middle L:90%
App Store. Um, and Dr Benjamin Jansen is
117
00:07:29.050 --> 00:07:31.500 A:middle L:90%
assistant professor of philosophy at Virginia Tech. He received
118
00:07:31.500 --> 00:07:33.839 A:middle L:90%
his Ph. D. In logic, computation and
119
00:07:33.839 --> 00:07:39.259 A:middle L:90%
methodology from the Department of Philosophy at Carnegie Mellon University
120
00:07:39.740 --> 00:07:42.910 A:middle L:90%
and holds degrees in philosophy, physics and biology.
121
00:07:42.920 --> 00:07:46.230 A:middle L:90%
His principal interest is in the contents and character of
122
00:07:46.230 --> 00:07:48.470 A:middle L:90%
the natural world. Most mostly, this amounts to
123
00:07:48.470 --> 00:07:51.959 A:middle L:90%
a concern with the interpretation of scientific theory and the
124
00:07:51.959 --> 00:07:56.290 A:middle L:90%
question of what, if anything, scientific theory licenses
125
00:07:56.300 --> 00:07:59.620 A:middle L:90%
us to say about un observable entities, processes and
126
00:07:59.620 --> 00:08:03.329 A:middle L:90%
events is currently authoring an interactive textbook for a new
127
00:08:03.329 --> 00:08:07.079 A:middle L:90%
course of Virginia Tech. Um, so thank you
128
00:08:07.079 --> 00:08:11.220 A:middle L:90%
very much for coming and well, hear from our
129
00:08:11.220 --> 00:08:22.470 A:middle L:90%
Panelists. It's bring you up first. The transition
130
00:08:22.470 --> 00:09:00.190 A:middle L:90%
is yeah, alright, we're almost there. Should
131
00:09:00.200 --> 00:09:05.250 A:middle L:90%
be it. All right, very good. So
132
00:09:05.940 --> 00:09:09.379 A:middle L:90%
she said, I'm in the computer science department,
133
00:09:09.389 --> 00:09:13.149 A:middle L:90%
and the courses I teach are usually related to data
134
00:09:13.149 --> 00:09:16.730 A:middle L:90%
structures and algorithms, which in computer science is one
135
00:09:16.730 --> 00:09:20.169 A:middle L:90%
of the recognized sort of big threads that typical students
136
00:09:20.169 --> 00:09:24.639 A:middle L:90%
take two or three courses in this area. And
137
00:09:24.639 --> 00:09:26.169 A:middle L:90%
it's some of the harder material that they take.
138
00:09:26.169 --> 00:09:31.769 A:middle L:90%
Its sort of typically is the bridge from people coming
139
00:09:31.769 --> 00:09:35.110 A:middle L:90%
into our discipline who start off basically learning to program
140
00:09:35.110 --> 00:09:39.980 A:middle L:90%
. And they become computer scientists through this for this
141
00:09:39.990 --> 00:09:43.970 A:middle L:90%
gateway. Typically in that they're learning about things about
142
00:09:43.970 --> 00:09:46.450 A:middle L:90%
how to analyze programs and design and so on.
143
00:09:48.340 --> 00:09:52.799 A:middle L:90%
And by its nature. Um, this content is
144
00:09:52.809 --> 00:09:56.320 A:middle L:90%
, uh, is about a dynamic process. Okay
145
00:09:56.320 --> 00:09:58.480 A:middle L:90%
, so an algorithm is a thing that goes through
146
00:09:58.480 --> 00:10:01.990 A:middle L:90%
states, right? And what is an algorithm?
147
00:10:01.990 --> 00:10:03.820 A:middle L:90%
It's a thing that does, Does the state transition
148
00:10:03.830 --> 00:10:05.669 A:middle L:90%
. How do you get that across? Well,
149
00:10:05.669 --> 00:10:07.830 A:middle L:90%
it's hard to do in a static textbook, right
150
00:10:07.840 --> 00:10:11.580 A:middle L:90%
, because it's all about change. It's all about
151
00:10:11.590 --> 00:10:13.529 A:middle L:90%
if you're going to sort something. It's all about
152
00:10:13.539 --> 00:10:15.870 A:middle L:90%
how the things move around in the array that you're
153
00:10:15.870 --> 00:10:20.620 A:middle L:90%
trying to sort. And because of this, for
154
00:10:20.620 --> 00:10:22.860 A:middle L:90%
since certainly since the eighties, people have attempted to
155
00:10:22.860 --> 00:10:28.710 A:middle L:90%
develop various visualizations computer based visualizations for showing how algorithms
156
00:10:28.710 --> 00:10:33.649 A:middle L:90%
work, and certainly since the mid nineties, when
157
00:10:33.649 --> 00:10:37.350 A:middle L:90%
Java came around, if there are lots of these
158
00:10:37.350 --> 00:10:41.049 A:middle L:90%
things being developed, and in fact there was so
159
00:10:41.049 --> 00:10:43.470 A:middle L:90%
much of it being developed, it's very hard to
160
00:10:43.470 --> 00:10:46.269 A:middle L:90%
tell what's worthwhile and what's not. So, um
161
00:10:46.269 --> 00:10:50.220 A:middle L:90%
, if you talk to uh, instructors or the
162
00:10:50.220 --> 00:10:54.250 A:middle L:90%
students who have any exposure to algorithm visualizations. They
163
00:10:54.250 --> 00:10:54.899 A:middle L:90%
all say this is a great idea, and we
164
00:10:54.899 --> 00:10:58.610 A:middle L:90%
really would like to use these, but starting,
165
00:10:58.620 --> 00:11:03.779 A:middle L:90%
um, with people doing surveys who work on this
166
00:11:03.779 --> 00:11:07.039 A:middle L:90%
topic developing algorithm visualizations. And they would go out
167
00:11:07.049 --> 00:11:09.779 A:middle L:90%
and they would survey instructors and they'd say, Yeah
168
00:11:09.779 --> 00:11:11.029 A:middle L:90%
, yeah, we think this is a great thing
169
00:11:11.029 --> 00:11:11.299 A:middle L:90%
that students all say, Yeah, this is a
170
00:11:11.299 --> 00:11:13.230 A:middle L:90%
great thing. Then you ask them where you're using
171
00:11:13.230 --> 00:11:15.980 A:middle L:90%
this in your class and so much they say,
172
00:11:15.990 --> 00:11:20.379 A:middle L:90%
Not so much. So they were trying to figure
173
00:11:20.379 --> 00:11:24.730 A:middle L:90%
out How do we, um So I've been working
174
00:11:24.730 --> 00:11:28.029 A:middle L:90%
for some time, developing my own algorithm, visualizations
175
00:11:28.029 --> 00:11:31.649 A:middle L:90%
and and getting to meet other people who do that
176
00:11:31.659 --> 00:11:35.570 A:middle L:90%
. And we realized that there was this mismatch between
177
00:11:35.570 --> 00:11:37.600 A:middle L:90%
how much people were using it and how much they
178
00:11:37.610 --> 00:11:39.360 A:middle L:90%
said they felt they ought to be using it.
179
00:11:39.840 --> 00:11:43.419 A:middle L:90%
And we basically got one first NSF grant I got
180
00:11:43.429 --> 00:11:46.429 A:middle L:90%
on this topic was for this project called Algarve is
181
00:11:46.429 --> 00:11:50.360 A:middle L:90%
, which is essentially a catalog site. So,
182
00:11:50.370 --> 00:11:52.750 A:middle L:90%
um, this is example Page and you can go
183
00:11:52.750 --> 00:11:58.200 A:middle L:90%
in here and it's meant to help you find and
184
00:11:58.200 --> 00:12:01.379 A:middle L:90%
search for various algorithm visualization. So there's a bunch
185
00:12:01.379 --> 00:12:03.120 A:middle L:90%
of topics you can look for and sort of narrow
186
00:12:03.120 --> 00:12:05.730 A:middle L:90%
down the field and, in fact, in some
187
00:12:05.730 --> 00:12:09.210 A:middle L:90%
topics, popular topics for this. There's hundreds of
188
00:12:09.210 --> 00:12:13.259 A:middle L:90%
these. This site here has over 500 of these
189
00:12:13.269 --> 00:12:15.350 A:middle L:90%
people have developed and they give away for free.
190
00:12:16.440 --> 00:12:18.159 A:middle L:90%
A lot of them aren't very good, frankly,
191
00:12:18.159 --> 00:12:20.080 A:middle L:90%
and some of them are very good. And so
192
00:12:20.090 --> 00:12:22.029 A:middle L:90%
we want to try and help people figure out which
193
00:12:22.029 --> 00:12:22.929 A:middle L:90%
is which. So there's an attempt to do rating
194
00:12:22.929 --> 00:12:26.950 A:middle L:90%
and so on. All right, so we developed
195
00:12:26.950 --> 00:12:30.110 A:middle L:90%
this site and we thought that this was going to
196
00:12:30.110 --> 00:12:33.399 A:middle L:90%
be very helpful to the instruction community in this area
197
00:12:33.399 --> 00:12:35.669 A:middle L:90%
in computer science, and it helps some, but
198
00:12:35.679 --> 00:12:37.940 A:middle L:90%
we continue to survey them, and we find that
199
00:12:37.940 --> 00:12:39.889 A:middle L:90%
well, still, people aren't using it so much
200
00:12:39.889 --> 00:12:41.779 A:middle L:90%
. So we asked them why. Basically, when
201
00:12:41.779 --> 00:12:45.080 A:middle L:90%
you ask them why there isn't so much use of
202
00:12:45.080 --> 00:12:48.649 A:middle L:90%
algorithm visualization the classroom, there's two clusters of of
203
00:12:48.659 --> 00:12:52.120 A:middle L:90%
of impediments that they have. One is finding good
204
00:12:52.120 --> 00:12:54.990 A:middle L:90%
stuff and knowing that it's good stuff, and that's
205
00:12:54.990 --> 00:12:58.330 A:middle L:90%
exactly what this site hopefully would resolve. And the
206
00:12:58.330 --> 00:13:01.629 A:middle L:90%
other is issues related to actually integrating into their course
207
00:13:01.629 --> 00:13:03.559 A:middle L:90%
, which I'll get to in a minute. Um
208
00:13:03.559 --> 00:13:05.049 A:middle L:90%
, I want to let me go back to this
209
00:13:05.059 --> 00:13:09.529 A:middle L:90%
, uh, from point of view of finding resources
210
00:13:09.529 --> 00:13:11.639 A:middle L:90%
, open resources. So this is an example of
211
00:13:11.649 --> 00:13:15.429 A:middle L:90%
of a site. That's that's its purpose. And
212
00:13:15.429 --> 00:13:18.909 A:middle L:90%
more broadly, I wanted to mention something called,
213
00:13:18.919 --> 00:13:22.110 A:middle L:90%
um ensemble. The computer science. There's some of
214
00:13:22.110 --> 00:13:26.960 A:middle L:90%
you are familiar with the NSF nsd l project.
215
00:13:26.960 --> 00:13:28.929 A:middle L:90%
Alright, We used to be National Science Digital Library
216
00:13:28.929 --> 00:13:31.960 A:middle L:90%
. I can't remember what they changed the acronym to
217
00:13:31.960 --> 00:13:33.240 A:middle L:90%
They decided they didn't like the term digital library for
218
00:13:33.240 --> 00:13:37.460 A:middle L:90%
some reason. But there are It's sort of discipline
219
00:13:37.460 --> 00:13:41.879 A:middle L:90%
specific. So think of all the disciplines the NSF
220
00:13:41.889 --> 00:13:45.700 A:middle L:90%
supports. And I think generally speaking, there is
221
00:13:45.710 --> 00:13:48.500 A:middle L:90%
a portal for each of those in the sense of
222
00:13:48.500 --> 00:13:50.940 A:middle L:90%
it's meant to be a thing that, um collects
223
00:13:50.940 --> 00:13:56.519 A:middle L:90%
together and disseminate and tells people about teaching materials within
224
00:13:56.519 --> 00:13:58.990 A:middle L:90%
that discipline. So this is an example of one
225
00:13:58.990 --> 00:14:01.919 A:middle L:90%
of them, Um, and so, you know
226
00:14:01.919 --> 00:14:03.570 A:middle L:90%
, if you're teaching any other science, physics,
227
00:14:03.570 --> 00:14:07.120 A:middle L:90%
biology, whatever, there should be portals for that
228
00:14:07.129 --> 00:14:11.259 A:middle L:90%
and should list the different different resources depending. I
229
00:14:11.259 --> 00:14:13.330 A:middle L:90%
don't know that much about the other portals. But
230
00:14:13.330 --> 00:14:16.909 A:middle L:90%
I put in a plug for this because Ed Fox
231
00:14:16.909 --> 00:14:20.289 A:middle L:90%
here is one of the copious on developing this project
232
00:14:20.289 --> 00:14:22.350 A:middle L:90%
, and Virginia Tech is sort of the technical lead
233
00:14:22.350 --> 00:14:28.230 A:middle L:90%
site. All right, so back to algorithm visualization
234
00:14:28.240 --> 00:14:30.509 A:middle L:90%
. So, as I said, one problem that
235
00:14:30.509 --> 00:14:33.870 A:middle L:90%
instructors had was, um, finding stuff. But
236
00:14:33.879 --> 00:14:37.149 A:middle L:90%
even if they know that, um, so one
237
00:14:37.149 --> 00:14:39.720 A:middle L:90%
topic that you might do a visualization on that we
238
00:14:39.730 --> 00:14:43.190 A:middle L:90%
get taught in in a second or third semester class
239
00:14:43.190 --> 00:14:45.700 A:middle L:90%
to be certain sorting algorithms, that's a pretty standard
240
00:14:45.700 --> 00:14:48.580 A:middle L:90%
thing that we teach. And there's lots of these
241
00:14:48.580 --> 00:14:50.080 A:middle L:90%
, and you might get told that. Okay,
242
00:14:50.090 --> 00:14:50.570 A:middle L:90%
this this one over here, this is a good
243
00:14:50.570 --> 00:14:54.149 A:middle L:90%
one that will teach certain sorting algorithms well, if
244
00:14:54.149 --> 00:14:58.830 A:middle L:90%
it doesn't really fit your textbook, there's this.
245
00:14:58.830 --> 00:15:01.460 A:middle L:90%
There's this dissonance that instruct that the students have to
246
00:15:01.460 --> 00:15:05.440 A:middle L:90%
overcome. The textbook shows the algorithm one way,
247
00:15:05.450 --> 00:15:09.059 A:middle L:90%
and the visualization may show it a little different way
248
00:15:09.070 --> 00:15:13.399 A:middle L:90%
, and the instructor probably has developed their course notes
249
00:15:13.399 --> 00:15:16.269 A:middle L:90%
and their materials, and they're teaching style. And
250
00:15:16.279 --> 00:15:18.350 A:middle L:90%
if you just take this thing and you tack it
251
00:15:18.350 --> 00:15:20.860 A:middle L:90%
on top of that, that's another 10 or 15
252
00:15:20.860 --> 00:15:22.230 A:middle L:90%
minutes out of your lecture to use that effectively that
253
00:15:22.230 --> 00:15:26.870 A:middle L:90%
you don't have. All of these are impediments about
254
00:15:26.879 --> 00:15:30.379 A:middle L:90%
actually fitting into their class. They just didn't just
255
00:15:30.389 --> 00:15:33.039 A:middle L:90%
have trouble overcoming. And that's, I think,
256
00:15:33.049 --> 00:15:37.490 A:middle L:90%
a universal issue that anyone trying to present a little
257
00:15:37.490 --> 00:15:39.379 A:middle L:90%
bits of class material has. How do people fit
258
00:15:39.379 --> 00:15:41.559 A:middle L:90%
that into their class? So we came to the
259
00:15:41.559 --> 00:15:46.419 A:middle L:90%
conclusion that the best way that we could actually get
260
00:15:46.429 --> 00:15:48.440 A:middle L:90%
people to adopt this is get them to adopt it
261
00:15:48.450 --> 00:15:50.350 A:middle L:90%
in the way that they adopt the textbook. That
262
00:15:50.350 --> 00:15:52.250 A:middle L:90%
is, it's a complete unit of instruction, and
263
00:15:52.429 --> 00:15:56.230 A:middle L:90%
instructors understand this concept of, you know if I
264
00:15:56.230 --> 00:15:56.789 A:middle L:90%
want to get a new textbook and it's got a
265
00:15:56.789 --> 00:15:58.990 A:middle L:90%
certain way of presenting it. I mean, some
266
00:15:58.990 --> 00:16:02.429 A:middle L:90%
people just put a textbook on their on their on
267
00:16:02.429 --> 00:16:03.379 A:middle L:90%
their list of things the beginning and then ignored for
268
00:16:03.379 --> 00:16:06.490 A:middle L:90%
the rest of the semester. But there's usually a
269
00:16:06.490 --> 00:16:08.980 A:middle L:90%
source of material that somebody is developing from, and
270
00:16:08.990 --> 00:16:12.200 A:middle L:90%
lots of instructors do that from their textbook and and
271
00:16:12.210 --> 00:16:15.559 A:middle L:90%
and it all fits together because it's a complete unit
272
00:16:15.940 --> 00:16:19.730 A:middle L:90%
. So we're thinking of giving a complete electronic textbook
273
00:16:19.740 --> 00:16:25.309 A:middle L:90%
that replaces all these words and images with the dynamic
274
00:16:25.309 --> 00:16:26.879 A:middle L:90%
process showing you what's going on. So visualization is
275
00:16:26.879 --> 00:16:30.200 A:middle L:90%
important. And actually, after we got into this
276
00:16:30.210 --> 00:16:33.500 A:middle L:90%
for a while, we found we came to the
277
00:16:33.500 --> 00:16:36.990 A:middle L:90%
conclusion. There's something more important than algorithm visualization,
278
00:16:37.220 --> 00:16:40.389 A:middle L:90%
and that is practice that these students need lots of
279
00:16:40.389 --> 00:16:42.500 A:middle L:90%
practice at the things that they're doing in these courses
280
00:16:44.039 --> 00:16:47.120 A:middle L:90%
. But traditionally, the types of things that are
281
00:16:47.120 --> 00:16:51.860 A:middle L:90%
best practices have also been the hardest degrade. And
282
00:16:52.240 --> 00:16:55.129 A:middle L:90%
so we have a number of collaborators, including a
283
00:16:55.129 --> 00:16:59.679 A:middle L:90%
group of Finland that pioneered certain types of exercises that
284
00:16:59.690 --> 00:17:02.480 A:middle L:90%
, um, students can use to show off to
285
00:17:02.480 --> 00:17:04.259 A:middle L:90%
demonstrate that they know how an algorithm works. So
286
00:17:04.259 --> 00:17:08.369 A:middle L:90%
we call that a proficiency exercise. So this open
287
00:17:08.369 --> 00:17:11.019 A:middle L:90%
de ESA project has a number of key features.
288
00:17:11.019 --> 00:17:15.049 A:middle L:90%
First of all, it's meant to be the textbook
289
00:17:15.539 --> 00:17:17.339 A:middle L:90%
, but it's meant to be much better than the
290
00:17:17.339 --> 00:17:22.289 A:middle L:90%
textbook, because all of the presentation involves showing you
291
00:17:22.299 --> 00:17:26.099 A:middle L:90%
dynamically what's going on. And then it integrates lots
292
00:17:26.099 --> 00:17:30.910 A:middle L:90%
of exercises that go beyond the exercises that people were
293
00:17:30.910 --> 00:17:33.450 A:middle L:90%
able to grade and do in their classes before.
294
00:17:33.740 --> 00:17:37.049 A:middle L:90%
And so those are the three sort of three themes
295
00:17:37.049 --> 00:17:40.019 A:middle L:90%
that this supports on. There's there's the content of
296
00:17:40.019 --> 00:17:44.160 A:middle L:90%
visualizations and the exercises and to show you an example
297
00:17:44.539 --> 00:17:45.670 A:middle L:90%
. There's a lot of these sort of these little
298
00:17:45.670 --> 00:17:49.849 A:middle L:90%
slide shows. So if this is a presentation on
299
00:17:49.859 --> 00:17:52.039 A:middle L:90%
linked lists, for example, one topic that might
300
00:17:52.049 --> 00:17:56.220 A:middle L:90%
be told in the second semester course then, um
301
00:17:56.230 --> 00:17:56.829 A:middle L:90%
, in the book you might see a couple a
302
00:17:56.829 --> 00:18:00.359 A:middle L:90%
picture or two. But a lot of pros we
303
00:18:00.359 --> 00:18:02.220 A:middle L:90%
try as much as we can, and we're not
304
00:18:02.230 --> 00:18:03.279 A:middle L:90%
completely there yet. We make progress on this,
305
00:18:03.279 --> 00:18:04.769 A:middle L:90%
but as much as we can, we want to
306
00:18:04.839 --> 00:18:08.940 A:middle L:90%
move away from blocks of pros, too. Short
307
00:18:08.940 --> 00:18:11.339 A:middle L:90%
bits of pros that have, uh, some kind
308
00:18:11.339 --> 00:18:14.910 A:middle L:90%
of image that goes with it. And students can
309
00:18:14.920 --> 00:18:17.250 A:middle L:90%
can move through this. And when they finish the
310
00:18:17.250 --> 00:18:18.029 A:middle L:90%
sideshow, they get little check mark to know they've
311
00:18:18.029 --> 00:18:22.779 A:middle L:90%
made some kind of progress. And so this idea
312
00:18:22.779 --> 00:18:26.069 A:middle L:90%
is that as they're learning this material, they're going
313
00:18:26.069 --> 00:18:27.670 A:middle L:90%
, they're being taken through this at their pace.
314
00:18:27.740 --> 00:18:30.880 A:middle L:90%
But once they have learned the material and see,
315
00:18:30.880 --> 00:18:33.650 A:middle L:90%
there's quite a few of these visualizations, once they've
316
00:18:33.650 --> 00:18:38.940 A:middle L:90%
learned the material, then there's exercises. And if
317
00:18:38.940 --> 00:18:42.099 A:middle L:90%
you're familiar with Khan Academy, I think a lot
318
00:18:42.099 --> 00:18:45.250 A:middle L:90%
of you okay a lot of you're familiar with that
319
00:18:45.259 --> 00:18:48.720 A:middle L:90%
? A lot of people know Khan Academy for their
320
00:18:48.720 --> 00:18:52.200 A:middle L:90%
videos, the groups of videos that they have.
321
00:18:52.210 --> 00:18:55.859 A:middle L:90%
But they also have a very nice infrastructure for building
322
00:18:56.440 --> 00:18:59.690 A:middle L:90%
of exercises that students can do. So we're using
323
00:18:59.690 --> 00:19:02.390 A:middle L:90%
that for some of our exercise types. But the
324
00:19:02.390 --> 00:19:04.440 A:middle L:90%
idea is that the student has to actually click on
325
00:19:04.440 --> 00:19:07.690 A:middle L:90%
things and manipulate this in one way or another.
326
00:19:07.690 --> 00:19:11.140 A:middle L:90%
Two. The show that they know how this works
327
00:19:11.140 --> 00:19:15.890 A:middle L:90%
and they click through and they make make things change
328
00:19:15.890 --> 00:19:18.930 A:middle L:90%
around and so on, and they're actually showing that
329
00:19:18.930 --> 00:19:22.390 A:middle L:90%
they have proficiency at this. So there's lots of
330
00:19:22.390 --> 00:19:23.589 A:middle L:90%
these visualizations I could show you that gives you the
331
00:19:23.589 --> 00:19:33.410 A:middle L:90%
gist of what's going on. All right, I
332
00:19:33.420 --> 00:19:36.359 A:middle L:90%
remember one presents, and then we'll do. Thank
333
00:19:36.359 --> 00:19:45.660 A:middle L:90%
you trying to start mhm. Yeah, I guess
334
00:19:45.660 --> 00:19:51.559 A:middle L:90%
I'm here representing market capitalism. Not necessarily has a
335
00:19:51.569 --> 00:19:52.680 A:middle L:90%
pro or con simply, I think that's that's kind
336
00:19:52.680 --> 00:19:55.980 A:middle L:90%
of what the way I'm looking at that open educational
337
00:19:55.980 --> 00:19:59.940 A:middle L:90%
resources. I'm a musician, and so I'll talk
338
00:19:59.940 --> 00:20:02.029 A:middle L:90%
a little bit more about that. I'm going to
339
00:20:02.039 --> 00:20:07.440 A:middle L:90%
hand out the CD, known as A as an
340
00:20:07.440 --> 00:20:10.670 A:middle L:90%
act of self promotion. But in the spirit of
341
00:20:10.859 --> 00:20:17.990 A:middle L:90%
open resources, handing out something that represents a tremendous
342
00:20:17.990 --> 00:20:22.059 A:middle L:90%
amount of of work. Yes, money, Uh
343
00:20:23.339 --> 00:20:27.700 A:middle L:90%
, and giving away. I'll have one mhm just
344
00:20:27.700 --> 00:20:30.759 A:middle L:90%
coming down to see if you make it. Yeah
345
00:20:36.839 --> 00:20:41.079 A:middle L:90%
. What? So I'll come back to the CD
346
00:20:41.079 --> 00:20:44.650 A:middle L:90%
in a minute, and I've got cards. If
347
00:20:44.650 --> 00:20:45.250 A:middle L:90%
you didn't get one and you want one, just
348
00:20:45.250 --> 00:20:48.200 A:middle L:90%
let me know after after the talk and I'll send
349
00:20:48.200 --> 00:20:51.720 A:middle L:90%
one to you. Um, I guess the way
350
00:20:51.720 --> 00:20:53.009 A:middle L:90%
I'm looking at a couple of things that I'd like
351
00:20:53.009 --> 00:20:56.910 A:middle L:90%
to address today I'm very interested in system evolution.
352
00:20:56.920 --> 00:20:59.730 A:middle L:90%
So I'm interested, You know, if we take
353
00:20:59.730 --> 00:21:03.789 A:middle L:90%
an idea like open resources, the questions that I
354
00:21:03.789 --> 00:21:06.670 A:middle L:90%
like to ask our well, if we make it
355
00:21:06.670 --> 00:21:10.509 A:middle L:90%
all the content available and freely available, what does
356
00:21:10.509 --> 00:21:12.299 A:middle L:90%
that do to the system and the system of content
357
00:21:12.299 --> 00:21:17.369 A:middle L:90%
generation, content, distribution? And, of course
358
00:21:17.369 --> 00:21:19.160 A:middle L:90%
, as an educational institution, that's what we're that's
359
00:21:19.160 --> 00:21:23.240 A:middle L:90%
the focus of our work is generating content and distributing
360
00:21:23.240 --> 00:21:26.710 A:middle L:90%
it to students. I'd like to use music as
361
00:21:26.710 --> 00:21:30.740 A:middle L:90%
an example because I think the music business music industry
362
00:21:30.740 --> 00:21:34.890 A:middle L:90%
has gone through an evolution over the last 25 years
363
00:21:34.930 --> 00:21:38.529 A:middle L:90%
that I think probably will be mimicked by the book
364
00:21:38.529 --> 00:21:45.640 A:middle L:90%
publishing industry and and other content distribution systems in the
365
00:21:45.640 --> 00:21:47.930 A:middle L:90%
next 10, 15, 20 years. So I
366
00:21:47.930 --> 00:21:49.650 A:middle L:90%
think music. I think there are some really important
367
00:21:49.650 --> 00:21:53.019 A:middle L:90%
direct parallels between music and just the whole idea of
368
00:21:53.019 --> 00:21:56.049 A:middle L:90%
content generation. Um, music is, of course
369
00:21:56.059 --> 00:22:00.259 A:middle L:90%
, a content, and it's it's a content that
370
00:22:00.269 --> 00:22:03.700 A:middle L:90%
is proprietary. Um, you know, whoever creates
371
00:22:03.700 --> 00:22:06.519 A:middle L:90%
the music and then performs and records it, um
372
00:22:06.529 --> 00:22:08.630 A:middle L:90%
, has created something that's very unique and it's in
373
00:22:08.630 --> 00:22:11.670 A:middle L:90%
demand. And it's It is an educational resource if
374
00:22:11.670 --> 00:22:15.299 A:middle L:90%
we think about music as something that enriches our lives
375
00:22:15.299 --> 00:22:18.720 A:middle L:90%
and expands our awareness of who we are and how
376
00:22:18.720 --> 00:22:21.549 A:middle L:90%
we fit into the world. So I think it
377
00:22:21.549 --> 00:22:25.930 A:middle L:90%
is very much an educational resource as well. So
378
00:22:25.930 --> 00:22:29.119 A:middle L:90%
I'd like to touch on sort of that evolution of
379
00:22:29.130 --> 00:22:30.059 A:middle L:90%
music business in the last 25 years. But I'd
380
00:22:30.059 --> 00:22:33.930 A:middle L:90%
also like to emphasise to that. I think we
381
00:22:33.930 --> 00:22:38.410 A:middle L:90%
can't talk about open educational resources without really thinking about
382
00:22:38.410 --> 00:22:45.369 A:middle L:90%
distance education and how the next 15 years are going
383
00:22:45.369 --> 00:22:48.369 A:middle L:90%
to change the way higher education looks, Um,
384
00:22:48.380 --> 00:22:53.859 A:middle L:90%
primarily, as we consolidate educational resources into distance learning
385
00:22:55.640 --> 00:23:00.329 A:middle L:90%
, uh, systems that will probably, um and
386
00:23:00.329 --> 00:23:02.490 A:middle L:90%
this is just my own personal opinion. Perhaps maybe
387
00:23:02.490 --> 00:23:03.369 A:middle L:90%
you disagree with this is fine, but I I
388
00:23:03.369 --> 00:23:07.950 A:middle L:90%
really think that we're moving toward a consolidation of instructors
389
00:23:07.960 --> 00:23:11.990 A:middle L:90%
who might be working at a central location. Our
390
00:23:11.000 --> 00:23:15.539 A:middle L:90%
current higher education system is based on localized universities,
391
00:23:15.539 --> 00:23:18.380 A:middle L:90%
and students go to given university, and they get
392
00:23:18.390 --> 00:23:22.619 A:middle L:90%
information from a unique point of view from a unique
393
00:23:22.630 --> 00:23:26.549 A:middle L:90%
instructor. And that instructor is generating content that's unique
394
00:23:26.559 --> 00:23:30.109 A:middle L:90%
to that classroom, probably even if even if he
395
00:23:30.109 --> 00:23:33.740 A:middle L:90%
or she is using off the shelf content is still
396
00:23:33.740 --> 00:23:37.559 A:middle L:90%
providing very unique source of information. And I think
397
00:23:37.559 --> 00:23:40.049 A:middle L:90%
if we go to a centralized source like a distance
398
00:23:40.049 --> 00:23:41.940 A:middle L:90%
education model, I think that what we have to
399
00:23:41.940 --> 00:23:45.410 A:middle L:90%
ask the question and what happens to all these unique
400
00:23:45.410 --> 00:23:48.019 A:middle L:90%
sources and these unique perspectives that exist at the localized
401
00:23:48.089 --> 00:23:52.750 A:middle L:90%
level do they become facilitators simply help great papers and
402
00:23:52.759 --> 00:23:55.500 A:middle L:90%
so on. And you know, the So I
403
00:23:55.500 --> 00:23:59.819 A:middle L:90%
do think that when we talk about content and open
404
00:23:59.819 --> 00:24:03.460 A:middle L:90%
content, we have to weigh the balance between how
405
00:24:03.460 --> 00:24:07.960 A:middle L:90%
do we support people who are providing unique content and
406
00:24:07.960 --> 00:24:10.029 A:middle L:90%
then distributing it? How do we support them?
407
00:24:10.029 --> 00:24:12.319 A:middle L:90%
How do we how we make sure that it continues
408
00:24:12.319 --> 00:24:15.400 A:middle L:90%
to be generated? And where does it come from
409
00:24:15.400 --> 00:24:18.039 A:middle L:90%
? Does it come from one individual source in the
410
00:24:18.039 --> 00:24:21.440 A:middle L:90%
whole state? Or does it come from 25 different
411
00:24:21.440 --> 00:24:25.690 A:middle L:90%
sources at all at all state universities? So those
412
00:24:25.690 --> 00:24:26.809 A:middle L:90%
are kind of some of the issues that I guess
413
00:24:26.809 --> 00:24:30.079 A:middle L:90%
I've been thinking about as well as I've been mulling
414
00:24:30.079 --> 00:24:33.819 A:middle L:90%
over this whole the issue of of content generation and
415
00:24:33.829 --> 00:24:38.210 A:middle L:90%
open resources. Um, going back to the record
416
00:24:38.220 --> 00:24:41.839 A:middle L:90%
, the business, the music business. Um,
417
00:24:41.849 --> 00:24:45.900 A:middle L:90%
you know, I think record companies historically succeeded as
418
00:24:45.900 --> 00:24:48.579 A:middle L:90%
a business model because they had access to content,
419
00:24:48.589 --> 00:24:52.259 A:middle L:90%
unique contact, and they had a protected distribution system
420
00:24:52.269 --> 00:24:55.039 A:middle L:90%
. With the advent of digital sharing Napster in the
421
00:24:55.039 --> 00:24:57.740 A:middle L:90%
eighties, the value of content was reduced significantly.
422
00:24:57.740 --> 00:25:02.369 A:middle L:90%
And with the advent of digital downloads and the rise
423
00:25:02.369 --> 00:25:08.839 A:middle L:90%
in high quality homebrewing homebrew recording systems, the the
424
00:25:08.960 --> 00:25:15.279 A:middle L:90%
distribution system became fluid and unprotected. Um, it
425
00:25:15.289 --> 00:25:18.059 A:middle L:90%
became it became someone in a basement, could produce
426
00:25:18.059 --> 00:25:19.690 A:middle L:90%
a grand equality song and distribute the song to millions
427
00:25:19.690 --> 00:25:23.470 A:middle L:90%
of people around the world. So the record,
428
00:25:23.470 --> 00:25:26.920 A:middle L:90%
the large record companies basically ceased to exist. There's
429
00:25:26.920 --> 00:25:27.970 A:middle L:90%
still a couple of two or three of them out
430
00:25:27.970 --> 00:25:32.319 A:middle L:90%
there, but they're really not very healthy corporate entities
431
00:25:32.319 --> 00:25:34.450 A:middle L:90%
anymore. And, um, maybe in the long
432
00:25:34.450 --> 00:25:37.490 A:middle L:90%
run, that probably will cease to exist completely.
433
00:25:37.849 --> 00:25:41.920 A:middle L:90%
The music industry magazine Billboard reports that for the first
434
00:25:41.920 --> 00:25:47.490 A:middle L:90%
time in 2000 and 13 since the iTunes store opened
435
00:25:47.490 --> 00:25:51.599 A:middle L:90%
its doors, the US music industry finished 2013,
436
00:25:51.599 --> 00:25:55.839 A:middle L:90%
with a decrease in digital music sales following 5% for
437
00:25:55.839 --> 00:26:00.789 A:middle L:90%
the year. Digital streaming numbers suggest that increases in
438
00:26:00.789 --> 00:26:03.509 A:middle L:90%
streaming revenues have offset revenues and digital downloads. So
439
00:26:03.609 --> 00:26:06.700 A:middle L:90%
, in essence, what's happening in the music industry
440
00:26:06.700 --> 00:26:10.440 A:middle L:90%
is that people are streaming music by paying a$5.10
441
00:26:10.440 --> 00:26:12.880 A:middle L:90%
dollars subscription service every month. They're getting that content
442
00:26:12.890 --> 00:26:15.549 A:middle L:90%
by paying a subscription service, Um, but they're
443
00:26:15.549 --> 00:26:18.130 A:middle L:90%
not buying it. They're not buying the music and
444
00:26:18.140 --> 00:26:21.710 A:middle L:90%
paying for it. And so we have to look
445
00:26:21.710 --> 00:26:22.230 A:middle L:90%
at the economics of that a little bit. The
446
00:26:22.230 --> 00:26:26.670 A:middle L:90%
impact on musicians as the producers of content is significant
447
00:26:26.680 --> 00:26:30.589 A:middle L:90%
. The monetary rewards for writing new songs for creating
448
00:26:30.589 --> 00:26:33.029 A:middle L:90%
new content has become have become minimal. For example
449
00:26:33.029 --> 00:26:36.799 A:middle L:90%
, musicians might earn if there if they talk about
450
00:26:36.799 --> 00:26:38.799 A:middle L:90%
digital downloads, they might earn 30 cents on a
451
00:26:38.799 --> 00:26:41.099 A:middle L:90%
digital download. Okay, so you sell enough of
452
00:26:41.099 --> 00:26:45.119 A:middle L:90%
those. Those 30 cents add up. You know
453
00:26:45.119 --> 00:26:47.880 A:middle L:90%
where in the past? A student? Uh,
454
00:26:47.890 --> 00:26:49.279 A:middle L:90%
they were selling whole albums, and the album might
455
00:26:49.279 --> 00:26:53.099 A:middle L:90%
cost$12 and they might earn$3 on an album
456
00:26:53.109 --> 00:26:56.769 A:middle L:90%
because the only way that somebody could buy that song
457
00:26:56.769 --> 00:26:57.250 A:middle L:90%
would be well, you could buy a single,
458
00:26:57.259 --> 00:27:00.000 A:middle L:90%
of course, but thinking about album sales, for
459
00:27:00.000 --> 00:27:03.710 A:middle L:90%
example, they would make$3 off of a$12
460
00:27:03.710 --> 00:27:07.720 A:middle L:90%
album. Now they're earning, say, a dollar
461
00:27:07.720 --> 00:27:11.400 A:middle L:90%
, because somebody downloads three songs from the album until
462
00:27:11.400 --> 00:27:14.650 A:middle L:90%
the economics there you can see are pretty obvious.
463
00:27:14.819 --> 00:27:18.329 A:middle L:90%
Now with digital streaming, digital streaming services pay copyright
464
00:27:18.339 --> 00:27:22.579 A:middle L:90%
owners about one cent per song per play. It
465
00:27:22.589 --> 00:27:25.839 A:middle L:90%
takes a lot of plays to add up to anything
466
00:27:25.990 --> 00:27:26.470 A:middle L:90%
, Really. I mean, really, the economics
467
00:27:26.470 --> 00:27:33.859 A:middle L:90%
for musicians are rather minimal for streaming, and it's
468
00:27:33.859 --> 00:27:36.779 A:middle L:90%
basically paid radio, isn't it? And and radio
469
00:27:36.779 --> 00:27:41.170 A:middle L:90%
has never been really a very economically uh, rewarding
470
00:27:41.170 --> 00:27:45.660 A:middle L:90%
for the producers. So no income really is generated
471
00:27:45.660 --> 00:27:48.589 A:middle L:90%
from these streaming services like YouTube either. And when
472
00:27:48.589 --> 00:27:51.339 A:middle L:90%
I talk to my students, you know they use
473
00:27:51.339 --> 00:27:52.819 A:middle L:90%
YouTube, probably more than any other service. Of
474
00:27:52.819 --> 00:27:56.400 A:middle L:90%
course, there's no revenue stream there for the musicians
475
00:27:56.400 --> 00:28:00.220 A:middle L:90%
unless they got advertising. There has been a significant
476
00:28:00.220 --> 00:28:03.049 A:middle L:90%
reduction, therefore in the number of big musical acts
477
00:28:03.440 --> 00:28:04.670 A:middle L:90%
. The idea that you go into a studio and
478
00:28:04.680 --> 00:28:07.869 A:middle L:90%
have a producer who gives you lots of health and
479
00:28:08.000 --> 00:28:11.559 A:middle L:90%
and the idea that a record company is supporting,
480
00:28:12.140 --> 00:28:15.500 A:middle L:90%
uh, an artist over a period of years to
481
00:28:15.500 --> 00:28:18.710 A:middle L:90%
develop a series of albums that then that's all basically
482
00:28:18.720 --> 00:28:23.059 A:middle L:90%
gone. Musicians tend to be making their living now
483
00:28:23.059 --> 00:28:27.349 A:middle L:90%
touring so, and that's pretty difficult life. The
484
00:28:27.359 --> 00:28:32.049 A:middle L:90%
quality, also arguably of recorded music, has diminished
485
00:28:32.059 --> 00:28:33.440 A:middle L:90%
over the last 20 years, while the availability of
486
00:28:33.440 --> 00:28:37.769 A:middle L:90%
cheap, mediocre music has florist because anybody can create
487
00:28:37.769 --> 00:28:40.759 A:middle L:90%
a recording and put it out there. So again
488
00:28:40.759 --> 00:28:42.259 A:middle L:90%
, we think about content and the value of content
489
00:28:44.640 --> 00:28:48.819 A:middle L:90%
. What does what does the freely available content due
490
00:28:48.819 --> 00:28:52.200 A:middle L:90%
to the quality of the content? Finally, I'd
491
00:28:52.200 --> 00:28:55.019 A:middle L:90%
like to just say a word or two about the
492
00:28:55.019 --> 00:29:00.140 A:middle L:90%
CD. Um, this CD basically took six years
493
00:29:00.150 --> 00:29:02.849 A:middle L:90%
from beginning to the end. If you look at
494
00:29:02.849 --> 00:29:04.569 A:middle L:90%
starting with the composing of the works all the way
495
00:29:04.569 --> 00:29:07.930 A:middle L:90%
up to the singers are Scottish opera singers, they're
496
00:29:08.039 --> 00:29:11.200 A:middle L:90%
employed by BBC and the Scottish Opera. So they
497
00:29:11.210 --> 00:29:14.759 A:middle L:90%
sing all over the world there really highly professional singers
498
00:29:15.079 --> 00:29:17.059 A:middle L:90%
. Some of the recordings were made in Glasgow somewhere
499
00:29:17.069 --> 00:29:18.170 A:middle L:90%
in Radford, so getting the singers, they had
500
00:29:18.339 --> 00:29:22.410 A:middle L:90%
two sessions in Radford at two different times. So
501
00:29:22.420 --> 00:29:25.880 A:middle L:90%
the cost involved in bringing those musicians to Radford you
502
00:29:25.880 --> 00:29:27.660 A:middle L:90%
can imagine, um, just not only their fees
503
00:29:27.660 --> 00:29:33.029 A:middle L:90%
, but the travel, the recording production. This
504
00:29:33.029 --> 00:29:34.549 A:middle L:90%
is a CD that that you put in the computer
505
00:29:34.549 --> 00:29:37.299 A:middle L:90%
and you'll get you can see all the scores you
506
00:29:37.299 --> 00:29:38.059 A:middle L:90%
get pictures you get. It's a CD, Ron
507
00:29:38.059 --> 00:29:41.690 A:middle L:90%
, basically. So it's a it's full of content
508
00:29:41.700 --> 00:29:45.259 A:middle L:90%
, and it's a huge project. So who pays
509
00:29:45.259 --> 00:29:47.119 A:middle L:90%
for that? You know, And the question is
510
00:29:47.130 --> 00:29:49.039 A:middle L:90%
, but it's free because, well, we might
511
00:29:49.039 --> 00:29:52.710 A:middle L:90%
sell 500. You know, it's you can get
512
00:29:52.710 --> 00:29:55.390 A:middle L:90%
it on Amazon and iTunes and Knox Knox is and
513
00:29:55.390 --> 00:30:00.289 A:middle L:90%
all those distribution worldwide distribution systems. But really,
514
00:30:00.299 --> 00:30:04.289 A:middle L:90%
ultimately, we were giving it away because we're not
515
00:30:04.289 --> 00:30:07.410 A:middle L:90%
gonna can you really sell it? Can you really
516
00:30:07.410 --> 00:30:10.900 A:middle L:90%
sell it? It's classical music. It's contemporary classical
517
00:30:10.900 --> 00:30:14.970 A:middle L:90%
music, so I'm just bringing, bringing up some
518
00:30:14.970 --> 00:30:15.380 A:middle L:90%
issues. I don't think I've answered a lot of
519
00:30:15.380 --> 00:30:18.680 A:middle L:90%
questions but maybe have provided a little back the time
520
00:30:18.690 --> 00:30:22.400 A:middle L:90%
. Will you show us your let your show something
521
00:30:22.410 --> 00:30:25.339 A:middle L:90%
? Oh, yeah. I'm sorry I didn't talk
522
00:30:25.339 --> 00:30:33.519 A:middle L:90%
about my my book. And this is actually and
523
00:30:33.519 --> 00:30:48.950 A:middle L:90%
I book. Uh huh. Mhm. Mhm.
524
00:30:49.339 --> 00:30:56.390 A:middle L:90%
I can't answer. And there's an app. Also
525
00:30:56.390 --> 00:30:59.619 A:middle L:90%
for the CD, it's 99 cents. And so
526
00:30:59.619 --> 00:31:00.819 A:middle L:90%
you're welcome. Please download that. If you like
527
00:31:00.819 --> 00:31:03.980 A:middle L:90%
it, it's on the iTunes store. It's an
528
00:31:03.980 --> 00:31:07.890 A:middle L:90%
ipad app. Um, this is this is a
529
00:31:07.900 --> 00:31:11.970 A:middle L:90%
book that is also an iBook that I think it
530
00:31:11.980 --> 00:31:17.230 A:middle L:90%
runs like$15. And I just wanted to sort
531
00:31:17.230 --> 00:31:19.470 A:middle L:90%
of show you if we can get the images to
532
00:31:19.470 --> 00:31:25.170 A:middle L:90%
load. Yeah, it it includes lots of musical
533
00:31:25.170 --> 00:31:27.230 A:middle L:90%
examples and scores, and and it's a standard,
534
00:31:27.240 --> 00:31:30.049 A:middle L:90%
but it's a nice example of an electronic textbook,
535
00:31:30.049 --> 00:31:44.809 A:middle L:90%
I think if we can Well, it's lot of
536
00:31:44.809 --> 00:31:45.779 A:middle L:90%
them. I guess it's a big site. I
537
00:31:45.779 --> 00:31:49.750 A:middle L:90%
suppose so. Yeah, that's on that. If
538
00:31:49.750 --> 00:31:52.140 A:middle L:90%
you go to the car, the cars I handed
539
00:31:52.140 --> 00:31:52.259 A:middle L:90%
out if you go to the website, you can
540
00:31:52.269 --> 00:31:55.319 A:middle L:90%
find it. Thank you very much. And I
541
00:31:55.319 --> 00:32:10.759 A:middle L:90%
also have a great You ready? Yeah, sure
542
00:32:12.339 --> 00:32:15.180 A:middle L:90%
. Um, before I show you my attempt at
543
00:32:15.180 --> 00:32:16.390 A:middle L:90%
an open source. Open access solution. I thought
544
00:32:16.390 --> 00:32:20.880 A:middle L:90%
I tried to explain the problem. Okay, so
545
00:32:20.880 --> 00:32:22.480 A:middle L:90%
in the philosophy department here we have, of course
546
00:32:22.480 --> 00:32:25.029 A:middle L:90%
, we call language and logic. Very much the
547
00:32:25.029 --> 00:32:28.869 A:middle L:90%
same sort, of course, is taught in many
548
00:32:28.869 --> 00:32:31.799 A:middle L:90%
other institutions. They go by names like critical thinking
549
00:32:31.809 --> 00:32:36.319 A:middle L:90%
, introduction to logic, argument analysis things along those
550
00:32:36.319 --> 00:32:38.269 A:middle L:90%
lines. And they all share the laudable goal of
551
00:32:38.640 --> 00:32:45.250 A:middle L:90%
helping students learn to critically analyze arguments to assess what
552
00:32:45.259 --> 00:32:47.349 A:middle L:90%
is and is not a compelling case for a particular
553
00:32:47.359 --> 00:32:52.190 A:middle L:90%
belief. Um, there's a great deal of similarity
554
00:32:52.190 --> 00:32:54.069 A:middle L:90%
across these courses, So I brought an old fashioned
555
00:32:54.069 --> 00:32:58.730 A:middle L:90%
visual aid. This is a textbook by baronet produced
556
00:32:58.730 --> 00:33:00.019 A:middle L:90%
by one of the big presses is Oxford. This
557
00:33:00.019 --> 00:33:04.089 A:middle L:90%
isn't excellent textbook. Uh, it's not the one
558
00:33:04.089 --> 00:33:06.180 A:middle L:90%
I used for the course, but you could tear
559
00:33:06.180 --> 00:33:07.319 A:middle L:90%
the table of contents out of this book and paste
560
00:33:07.319 --> 00:33:09.849 A:middle L:90%
into one that I did use and probably not notice
561
00:33:09.849 --> 00:33:14.970 A:middle L:90%
a problem. There's that much uniformity and how these
562
00:33:14.970 --> 00:33:17.700 A:middle L:90%
are produced. There are, I think, despite
563
00:33:17.700 --> 00:33:22.089 A:middle L:90%
the quality of the exercises and the examples, two
564
00:33:22.089 --> 00:33:24.619 A:middle L:90%
problems, both with these textbooks and with actually the
565
00:33:24.619 --> 00:33:29.279 A:middle L:90%
courses we've been teaching, it The problem is that
566
00:33:29.279 --> 00:33:31.940 A:middle L:90%
it doesn't seem to be serving either of two kinds
567
00:33:31.940 --> 00:33:36.480 A:middle L:90%
of students. Well, there are those students who
568
00:33:36.480 --> 00:33:39.250 A:middle L:90%
will go on in philosophy or in the study,
569
00:33:39.259 --> 00:33:42.970 A:middle L:90%
in particular deductive logic. And for those students,
570
00:33:42.970 --> 00:33:45.190 A:middle L:90%
this kind, of course, is not a sufficiently
571
00:33:45.190 --> 00:33:46.839 A:middle L:90%
rigorous introduction. In fact, we have another course
572
00:33:46.839 --> 00:33:49.740 A:middle L:90%
to do just that. We have an introduction of
573
00:33:49.740 --> 00:33:53.799 A:middle L:90%
symbolic logic. Most of the students are there for
574
00:33:53.799 --> 00:33:55.430 A:middle L:90%
really this. This will be the one course in
575
00:33:55.430 --> 00:33:59.119 A:middle L:90%
philosophy right there, one course and reasoning and argument
576
00:33:59.119 --> 00:34:01.119 A:middle L:90%
analysis. And for those students, the fact that
577
00:34:01.130 --> 00:34:06.829 A:middle L:90%
the bulk of the material emphasizes not just deductive logic
578
00:34:06.839 --> 00:34:09.000 A:middle L:90%
, which is a fairly modest subset of the kinds
579
00:34:09.000 --> 00:34:10.659 A:middle L:90%
of arguments are going to see in daily life.
580
00:34:10.940 --> 00:34:15.889 A:middle L:90%
But ancient deductive logic stuff that was in the curriculum
581
00:34:15.900 --> 00:34:17.530 A:middle L:90%
, you know, in the first universities in the
582
00:34:17.530 --> 00:34:22.429 A:middle L:90%
13th century. Uh, it's not tremendously useful for
583
00:34:22.429 --> 00:34:25.179 A:middle L:90%
those students. So the problem was, you know
584
00:34:25.190 --> 00:34:28.329 A:middle L:90%
, I step back and ask myself, Look,
585
00:34:28.340 --> 00:34:31.199 A:middle L:90%
if someone's gonna take just one class in argument analysis
586
00:34:31.210 --> 00:34:34.559 A:middle L:90%
, what is best going to serve the typical story
587
00:34:35.440 --> 00:34:39.380 A:middle L:90%
and what I decided the principal goal learning objective ought
588
00:34:39.380 --> 00:34:44.159 A:middle L:90%
to be is to make students competent consumers, if
589
00:34:44.159 --> 00:34:47.719 A:middle L:90%
not producers of the full, wild and woolly range
590
00:34:47.730 --> 00:34:52.780 A:middle L:90%
of arguments that they will likely encounter across the disciplines
591
00:34:52.780 --> 00:34:54.119 A:middle L:90%
in their daily lives. Most of those arguments are
592
00:34:54.119 --> 00:34:57.900 A:middle L:90%
not deductive. Most of those arguments are inductive in
593
00:34:57.900 --> 00:35:00.050 A:middle L:90%
one way or another, and most of those arguments
594
00:35:00.059 --> 00:35:05.400 A:middle L:90%
appeal to one or another formal apparatus. Think statistics
595
00:35:05.400 --> 00:35:07.110 A:middle L:90%
, think, uh, decision theory with the business
596
00:35:07.110 --> 00:35:10.449 A:middle L:90%
folks call multi criteria decision analysis, I have to
597
00:35:10.449 --> 00:35:15.619 A:middle L:90%
think of, well, actually algorithmic solutions to to
598
00:35:15.630 --> 00:35:21.000 A:middle L:90%
procedural sorts of problems. That's the material that would
599
00:35:21.000 --> 00:35:23.070 A:middle L:90%
have to be emphasised somehow would have to be drawn
600
00:35:23.070 --> 00:35:25.280 A:middle L:90%
out and presented in a way that students can learn
601
00:35:25.289 --> 00:35:29.179 A:middle L:90%
, how to recognize these things and how to at
602
00:35:29.179 --> 00:35:34.000 A:middle L:90%
least assess whether or not the conditions are met for
603
00:35:34.000 --> 00:35:35.639 A:middle L:90%
any instance of one of these arguments. For it
604
00:35:35.639 --> 00:35:37.289 A:middle L:90%
to be a strong argument, right? There's various
605
00:35:37.289 --> 00:35:39.119 A:middle L:90%
assumptions that have to be satisfied to give me a
606
00:35:39.119 --> 00:35:43.030 A:middle L:90%
good statistical argument that your drug works. What are
607
00:35:43.030 --> 00:35:45.789 A:middle L:90%
those assumptions? And so, as I thought about
608
00:35:45.789 --> 00:35:50.690 A:middle L:90%
how to organize this material, you know what bothered
609
00:35:50.690 --> 00:35:52.710 A:middle L:90%
me? A. I should have said the second
610
00:35:52.710 --> 00:35:54.639 A:middle L:90%
major problem with books of this sort aside from the
611
00:35:54.639 --> 00:35:57.929 A:middle L:90%
emphasis, is the way the material is organized.
612
00:35:57.929 --> 00:36:00.650 A:middle L:90%
It's more or less an arbitrary sequence of argument types
613
00:36:00.829 --> 00:36:02.079 A:middle L:90%
. I mean, they all filed more or less
614
00:36:02.079 --> 00:36:06.440 A:middle L:90%
the same story. What's an argument? What's the
615
00:36:06.440 --> 00:36:07.420 A:middle L:90%
deductive argument? Validity. Sound as possible? Ah
616
00:36:07.420 --> 00:36:09.469 A:middle L:90%
, but then, if there is a discussion of
617
00:36:09.469 --> 00:36:12.860 A:middle L:90%
inductive arguments, you're welcome to look through this at
618
00:36:12.860 --> 00:36:15.420 A:middle L:90%
the end. But it's usually just a handful of
619
00:36:15.420 --> 00:36:17.139 A:middle L:90%
topics the author happened to be comfortable with in no
620
00:36:17.139 --> 00:36:21.570 A:middle L:90%
particular order, and it's very hard when presenting that
621
00:36:21.570 --> 00:36:23.280 A:middle L:90%
material, to get students to retain any of the
622
00:36:23.289 --> 00:36:27.119 A:middle L:90%
classification of distinctions you're giving them. Another way to
623
00:36:27.119 --> 00:36:30.650 A:middle L:90%
say it is that this presentation doesn't model the expert
624
00:36:30.650 --> 00:36:34.079 A:middle L:90%
process by which one of us would quickly identify an
625
00:36:34.079 --> 00:36:37.780 A:middle L:90%
argument and assess what needs to be satisfied for it
626
00:36:37.780 --> 00:36:40.610 A:middle L:90%
to be strong. The the solution that I struck
627
00:36:40.610 --> 00:36:44.250 A:middle L:90%
upon in terms of structure, actually, this is
628
00:36:44.250 --> 00:36:45.929 A:middle L:90%
a wonderful example of it. So this is new
629
00:36:45.929 --> 00:36:50.380 A:middle L:90%
Combs, uh, wildflower guide. I don't know
630
00:36:50.380 --> 00:36:52.610 A:middle L:90%
if you've ever used field guides for identifying birds or
631
00:36:52.610 --> 00:36:55.079 A:middle L:90%
flowers, but there's two basic kinds. One is
632
00:36:55.079 --> 00:36:58.739 A:middle L:90%
something like Peterson's, which is very similar to this
633
00:36:58.739 --> 00:37:01.480 A:middle L:90%
logic textbook It's just a collection of birds grouped loosely
634
00:37:01.480 --> 00:37:06.159 A:middle L:90%
into, say, a common color scheme or size
635
00:37:06.630 --> 00:37:07.719 A:middle L:90%
. Um, and you know the way it works
636
00:37:07.719 --> 00:37:09.289 A:middle L:90%
. If you want to identify a bird, is
637
00:37:09.289 --> 00:37:12.059 A:middle L:90%
you kind of go to that section and flip through
638
00:37:12.059 --> 00:37:14.309 A:middle L:90%
and hope for the best. The way a guide
639
00:37:14.309 --> 00:37:16.150 A:middle L:90%
like this works is it uses an identification key.
640
00:37:16.159 --> 00:37:20.139 A:middle L:90%
So the 1st 10 pages or so of this guide
641
00:37:20.150 --> 00:37:23.460 A:middle L:90%
is a presentation of what they call the five questions
642
00:37:23.469 --> 00:37:25.829 A:middle L:90%
. But it's questions like, you know, look
643
00:37:25.829 --> 00:37:29.820 A:middle L:90%
at the plant. Are the leaves basil at the
644
00:37:29.820 --> 00:37:32.159 A:middle L:90%
bottom world? Alternate? I forget the fourth one
645
00:37:32.530 --> 00:37:36.019 A:middle L:90%
. Uh, you answer that question, it jumps
646
00:37:36.019 --> 00:37:37.769 A:middle L:90%
you to a new question, right? And every
647
00:37:37.769 --> 00:37:39.219 A:middle L:90%
time you answer one of these questions your paring down
648
00:37:39.230 --> 00:37:43.300 A:middle L:90%
the space of possibilities. But importantly, what you're
649
00:37:43.300 --> 00:37:45.730 A:middle L:90%
also doing is you learn to use a guide like
650
00:37:45.730 --> 00:37:49.980 A:middle L:90%
this is your very quickly internalizing the important distinctions,
651
00:37:49.989 --> 00:37:53.949 A:middle L:90%
the things that matter for botanists, genuine structural features
652
00:37:53.949 --> 00:37:57.389 A:middle L:90%
of the flower. And I decided this is how
653
00:37:57.389 --> 00:37:59.900 A:middle L:90%
I would structure the material on arguments. I've got
654
00:37:59.900 --> 00:38:02.369 A:middle L:90%
this huge range. This huge collection of stuff and
655
00:38:02.369 --> 00:38:05.090 A:middle L:90%
the way to hang it together is to build a
656
00:38:05.090 --> 00:38:07.550 A:middle L:90%
guide. In fact, actually, I'm building two
657
00:38:07.550 --> 00:38:09.949 A:middle L:90%
guides, one for argument types, Uh, and
658
00:38:09.949 --> 00:38:15.130 A:middle L:90%
one for common sorts of problems where there's a connection
659
00:38:15.130 --> 00:38:19.070 A:middle L:90%
between the two. So for certain recurring kinds of
660
00:38:19.070 --> 00:38:22.760 A:middle L:90%
problems, there is a typically one particular sort of
661
00:38:22.760 --> 00:38:25.699 A:middle L:90%
argument used to either justify or produce an answer to
662
00:38:25.699 --> 00:38:30.869 A:middle L:90%
that problem. Question. And, um, you
663
00:38:30.869 --> 00:38:32.130 A:middle L:90%
know, once you decide on a field guide sort
664
00:38:32.130 --> 00:38:35.320 A:middle L:90%
of structure, there's a question, of course,
665
00:38:35.320 --> 00:38:37.659 A:middle L:90%
of how you physically implement this. How do you
666
00:38:37.659 --> 00:38:39.780 A:middle L:90%
present this to students? I decided very quickly that
667
00:38:39.789 --> 00:38:45.010 A:middle L:90%
this ought to be done electronically. Um, there
668
00:38:45.010 --> 00:38:47.750 A:middle L:90%
we go. Well, am I pointing at?
669
00:38:50.719 --> 00:38:54.960 A:middle L:90%
Well, interesting. Give me one second. I
670
00:38:54.960 --> 00:38:58.639 A:middle L:90%
forget this defaults to showing you my other workspaces.
671
00:39:00.219 --> 00:39:10.860 A:middle L:90%
Um, Gibson actually got a better idea, not
672
00:39:10.860 --> 00:39:25.750 A:middle L:90%
just move this. Yeah. There you go.
673
00:39:29.519 --> 00:39:30.260 A:middle L:90%
And now let me see if I can do this
674
00:39:30.260 --> 00:39:34.030 A:middle L:90%
without looking at my monitor. I should have set
675
00:39:34.030 --> 00:39:38.650 A:middle L:90%
it up to mirror in advance. All right,
676
00:39:39.019 --> 00:39:43.829 A:middle L:90%
that's good vision. Okay. I decided that this
677
00:39:43.829 --> 00:39:46.219 A:middle L:90%
should be done electronically for a couple of reasons.
678
00:39:46.219 --> 00:39:49.030 A:middle L:90%
One, It's a little bit tedious to do it
679
00:39:49.030 --> 00:39:52.980 A:middle L:90%
on paper, particularly when you're the classification a little
680
00:39:52.980 --> 00:39:54.769 A:middle L:90%
bit trickier than it is for flowers. I'm gonna
681
00:39:54.769 --> 00:39:58.840 A:middle L:90%
have to have more than five main questions. Um
682
00:39:59.320 --> 00:40:02.309 A:middle L:90%
, so you can interact you Can you simply click
683
00:40:02.309 --> 00:40:05.309 A:middle L:90%
yes or no? Or choose your your answer from
684
00:40:05.309 --> 00:40:07.159 A:middle L:90%
the possibilities and jump to the next question. But
685
00:40:07.159 --> 00:40:12.210 A:middle L:90%
also, um, I decided that this is exactly
686
00:40:12.210 --> 00:40:15.940 A:middle L:90%
the sort of thing that would benefit most from a
687
00:40:15.949 --> 00:40:21.070 A:middle L:90%
collaborative development. I don't want to own this guide
688
00:40:21.079 --> 00:40:22.639 A:middle L:90%
. I want the community of those of us who
689
00:40:22.650 --> 00:40:25.889 A:middle L:90%
teach this material to own this guide. And so
690
00:40:25.889 --> 00:40:28.619 A:middle L:90%
from the outset, I knew that I wanted to
691
00:40:28.619 --> 00:40:31.699 A:middle L:90%
solicit contributions from other institutions. I wanted to make
692
00:40:31.699 --> 00:40:36.460 A:middle L:90%
this as usable for everybody as possible, both the
693
00:40:36.460 --> 00:40:39.750 A:middle L:90%
students and the instructors. So I've tried hard to
694
00:40:39.750 --> 00:40:44.150 A:middle L:90%
make this, um, accessible in a variety of
695
00:40:44.150 --> 00:40:46.889 A:middle L:90%
ways. This is what the site looks like at
696
00:40:46.889 --> 00:40:51.159 A:middle L:90%
the moment. Um, it might look a little
697
00:40:51.159 --> 00:40:52.110 A:middle L:90%
bit funny on the desktop, or at least not
698
00:40:52.110 --> 00:40:55.039 A:middle L:90%
as elegant as it as it could. That's in
699
00:40:55.039 --> 00:40:59.519 A:middle L:90%
part because I've designed this thing to be maximally portable
700
00:41:00.110 --> 00:41:01.639 A:middle L:90%
. So what you're looking at, you'll see that
701
00:41:01.639 --> 00:41:05.639 A:middle L:90%
if I shrink it, it doesn't break it.
702
00:41:06.210 --> 00:41:07.949 A:middle L:90%
What? You're looking at should display just fine on
703
00:41:07.949 --> 00:41:10.849 A:middle L:90%
pretty much any device that can show you HTML.
704
00:41:10.860 --> 00:41:15.030 A:middle L:90%
So I guess next year that include wristwatches uhh.
705
00:41:15.510 --> 00:41:19.070 A:middle L:90%
And this will re flow for those devices. So
706
00:41:19.070 --> 00:41:20.329 A:middle L:90%
if you want it, if I want to look
707
00:41:20.329 --> 00:41:22.150 A:middle L:90%
at this on my iPhone, I can. That's
708
00:41:22.150 --> 00:41:24.030 A:middle L:90%
why I built it to do, um, what
709
00:41:24.030 --> 00:41:27.480 A:middle L:90%
you'll see is here's the guy that I was talking
710
00:41:27.480 --> 00:41:30.039 A:middle L:90%
about. So it asks you a question, right
711
00:41:30.039 --> 00:41:30.969 A:middle L:90%
? So this is a big question. Number one
712
00:41:30.980 --> 00:41:34.369 A:middle L:90%
, you're looking at an inductive or deductive argument.
713
00:41:34.380 --> 00:41:35.929 A:middle L:90%
Well, if you know what that means, you
714
00:41:35.929 --> 00:41:37.219 A:middle L:90%
can quickly answer the question and choose one of these
715
00:41:37.219 --> 00:41:38.909 A:middle L:90%
. And off you go. If you have no
716
00:41:38.909 --> 00:41:43.409 A:middle L:90%
idea what that means, uh, you can expand
717
00:41:43.420 --> 00:41:45.980 A:middle L:90%
on the distinction. So this is where the important
718
00:41:45.980 --> 00:41:49.739 A:middle L:90%
pedagogical pieces as you look at an argument, try
719
00:41:49.739 --> 00:41:52.230 A:middle L:90%
to classify, you're forced to go through these sorts
720
00:41:52.230 --> 00:41:53.360 A:middle L:90%
of descriptions. What what is this Distinction is trying
721
00:41:53.360 --> 00:41:57.099 A:middle L:90%
to draw. And there's examples at the bottom where
722
00:41:57.099 --> 00:41:59.940 A:middle L:90%
it's worked out for a couple of problems. Um
723
00:42:00.500 --> 00:42:02.239 A:middle L:90%
shows you how to do it. When you get
724
00:42:02.239 --> 00:42:05.920 A:middle L:90%
down to a terminal leaf, you know where you're
725
00:42:05.929 --> 00:42:07.539 A:middle L:90%
where you're seeing a particular problem type. There's a
726
00:42:07.539 --> 00:42:10.789 A:middle L:90%
similar description. What what is this Or argument Type
727
00:42:10.800 --> 00:42:13.260 A:middle L:90%
? What is this kind of argument? What are
728
00:42:13.260 --> 00:42:15.010 A:middle L:90%
the assumptions that have to be in place for this
729
00:42:15.010 --> 00:42:19.789 A:middle L:90%
to work? But there's also interactive tools for many
730
00:42:19.789 --> 00:42:21.510 A:middle L:90%
of the kinds of things that I want students to
731
00:42:21.510 --> 00:42:23.320 A:middle L:90%
learn to use but not produce. Like statistical tests
732
00:42:23.599 --> 00:42:27.300 A:middle L:90%
. Students can feed data into the Web site itself
733
00:42:27.320 --> 00:42:30.219 A:middle L:90%
, and they'll get back out an answer. And
734
00:42:30.219 --> 00:42:32.639 A:middle L:90%
that's all done again on the server side so that
735
00:42:32.650 --> 00:42:35.360 A:middle L:90%
you can use this on your iPhone and put the
736
00:42:35.360 --> 00:42:37.639 A:middle L:90%
data in and get an answer out there. There's
737
00:42:37.650 --> 00:42:44.710 A:middle L:90%
no problems. Um, I ran out of time
738
00:42:44.710 --> 00:42:47.710 A:middle L:90%
and then I didn't great. All right, then
739
00:42:47.719 --> 00:42:52.300 A:middle L:90%
, Yeah. So Oh, as I said,
740
00:42:52.300 --> 00:42:53.860 A:middle L:90%
there's really a pair of guides here, so this
741
00:42:53.860 --> 00:42:59.070 A:middle L:90%
is, uh, for identifying arguments. But there
742
00:42:59.070 --> 00:43:01.440 A:middle L:90%
is also a field guide to problems and the to
743
00:43:01.440 --> 00:43:04.449 A:middle L:90%
connect with one another. So when you work your
744
00:43:04.449 --> 00:43:07.840 A:middle L:90%
way down to a specific problem type or argument type
745
00:43:07.840 --> 00:43:09.010 A:middle L:90%
, Rather says, You know this is good for
746
00:43:09.019 --> 00:43:13.110 A:middle L:90%
justifying or perhaps producing answers to this kind of a
747
00:43:13.110 --> 00:43:14.929 A:middle L:90%
problem, and it'll link you over to the to
748
00:43:14.929 --> 00:43:16.099 A:middle L:90%
the other guide. And, of course, there's
749
00:43:16.110 --> 00:43:17.730 A:middle L:90%
, uh, you know, tools for searching the
750
00:43:17.730 --> 00:43:20.980 A:middle L:90%
whole thing or for simply using an index if you
751
00:43:20.980 --> 00:43:22.650 A:middle L:90%
already know where you want to go, Um,
752
00:43:22.659 --> 00:43:25.480 A:middle L:90%
the intense ignore the copyright that you might see at
753
00:43:25.480 --> 00:43:28.340 A:middle L:90%
the bottom of the page. That's just because I
754
00:43:28.340 --> 00:43:30.690 A:middle L:90%
haven't gotten around to tweaking that part of the template
755
00:43:30.690 --> 00:43:32.019 A:middle L:90%
yet. This is all supposed to be out.
756
00:43:32.500 --> 00:43:37.139 A:middle L:90%
The content as well as the code that's built into
757
00:43:37.139 --> 00:43:38.289 A:middle L:90%
the page, is all supposed to be available on
758
00:43:38.289 --> 00:43:44.369 A:middle L:90%
a creative Commons license. Um and yeah, I
759
00:43:44.369 --> 00:43:45.260 A:middle L:90%
would love to show you that on mobile devices,
760
00:43:45.260 --> 00:43:47.550 A:middle L:90%
but actually, my machine here is acting as its
761
00:43:47.550 --> 00:43:51.349 A:middle L:90%
own server. Haven't moved it to the university server
762
00:43:51.349 --> 00:43:53.099 A:middle L:90%
yet. That will happen soon. Uh, and
763
00:43:53.110 --> 00:43:58.599 A:middle L:90%
I've already made connections with other institutions, uh,
764
00:43:58.610 --> 00:44:01.260 A:middle L:90%
to solicit contributions. Feedback. The aim is for
765
00:44:01.260 --> 00:44:06.510 A:middle L:90%
this to be a collaboratively developed textbook substitute advice book
766
00:44:07.889 --> 00:44:15.369 A:middle L:90%
. Go wanted to give you the opportunity that you
767
00:44:15.369 --> 00:44:19.019 A:middle L:90%
want to show. Oh, so we're talking.
768
00:44:19.030 --> 00:44:22.909 A:middle L:90%
Thank you. Um, thank you very much for
769
00:44:22.920 --> 00:44:24.469 A:middle L:90%
all of your comments. One of the things that
770
00:44:24.469 --> 00:44:27.909 A:middle L:90%
I'm hearing from all of you as a question about
771
00:44:27.920 --> 00:44:32.849 A:middle L:90%
quality. How do we make sure that there is
772
00:44:32.860 --> 00:44:37.460 A:middle L:90%
? There are quality resources that are findable that are
773
00:44:37.469 --> 00:44:42.110 A:middle L:90%
continuing to be developed that are supported? Um,
774
00:44:43.590 --> 00:44:50.849 A:middle L:90%
let's talk about that. I think all of all
775
00:44:50.849 --> 00:44:57.190 A:middle L:90%
of us are developing material that we it's as good
776
00:44:57.190 --> 00:44:59.650 A:middle L:90%
as we make it. Um, so in that
777
00:44:59.650 --> 00:45:04.420 A:middle L:90%
sense, I guess it's a little bit of a
778
00:45:06.480 --> 00:45:07.119 A:middle L:90%
there's all this stuff going to be out there and
779
00:45:07.119 --> 00:45:09.090 A:middle L:90%
people are going to pick what they think is good
780
00:45:09.230 --> 00:45:12.159 A:middle L:90%
. And if we've done a good job, it'll
781
00:45:12.159 --> 00:45:13.809 A:middle L:90%
get used. And if not, it won't get
782
00:45:13.820 --> 00:45:17.679 A:middle L:90%
used. Um, yeah, that's a That's a
783
00:45:17.679 --> 00:45:22.280 A:middle L:90%
really tough issue because certainly in the past, with
784
00:45:22.280 --> 00:45:24.420 A:middle L:90%
the algorithm visualizations, there were hundreds out there and
785
00:45:24.420 --> 00:45:28.920 A:middle L:90%
I'd say three quarters of them probably should never have
786
00:45:28.929 --> 00:45:30.889 A:middle L:90%
been out there because they just aren't something anybody should
787
00:45:30.889 --> 00:45:35.179 A:middle L:90%
use or the original or to use them. It
788
00:45:35.179 --> 00:45:37.309 A:middle L:90%
has to be in that specific context of that person
789
00:45:37.309 --> 00:45:39.920 A:middle L:90%
who developed them, and it really isn't General Izabal
790
00:45:40.590 --> 00:45:43.869 A:middle L:90%
. I don't know that there is a solution to
791
00:45:43.869 --> 00:45:45.590 A:middle L:90%
that. In a sense, we can't guarantee equality
792
00:45:45.590 --> 00:45:47.829 A:middle L:90%
. What you do is you find things in the
793
00:45:47.829 --> 00:45:51.610 A:middle L:90%
great mass out there that that is good for you
794
00:45:52.389 --> 00:45:55.650 A:middle L:90%
. Things that might might indicate a high probability of
795
00:45:55.659 --> 00:46:00.880 A:middle L:90%
good quality is if you've got If a number of
796
00:46:00.880 --> 00:46:05.110 A:middle L:90%
people are helping to develop it and are maintaining it
797
00:46:05.110 --> 00:46:07.190 A:middle L:90%
and a number of people have used it, that's
798
00:46:07.190 --> 00:46:10.920 A:middle L:90%
a good sign. I know that we have some
799
00:46:10.920 --> 00:46:15.110 A:middle L:90%
faculty and some instructional designers in the audience. Does
800
00:46:15.119 --> 00:46:20.809 A:middle L:90%
anyone want to talk about what they look for in
801
00:46:20.809 --> 00:46:23.380 A:middle L:90%
terms of quality? I'm sorry you had not.
802
00:46:28.380 --> 00:46:34.400 A:middle L:90%
One of the things that concerns is the loss of
803
00:46:34.409 --> 00:46:37.590 A:middle L:90%
peer review. Mhm to the cliff mentioned. It's
804
00:46:37.590 --> 00:46:43.579 A:middle L:90%
being used. Then we've got something good. That's
805
00:46:43.579 --> 00:46:47.260 A:middle L:90%
probably the ultimate peer review. I cannot count how
806
00:46:47.260 --> 00:46:54.000 A:middle L:90%
many symbolic logic textbooks they come out mess every year
807
00:46:54.679 --> 00:46:58.909 A:middle L:90%
, and they're not particularly peer reviewed. You could
808
00:46:58.909 --> 00:47:01.639 A:middle L:90%
argue the editor does, but not much. I've
809
00:47:01.650 --> 00:47:07.579 A:middle L:90%
been asked to give you a couple mhm and yeah
810
00:47:07.280 --> 00:47:10.239 A:middle L:90%
, it always comes out that it's not good enough
811
00:47:10.250 --> 00:47:15.590 A:middle L:90%
. I need to write my own, so it's
812
00:47:15.599 --> 00:47:19.570 A:middle L:90%
maintaining the quality that that is so hard as you
813
00:47:19.570 --> 00:47:22.809 A:middle L:90%
point out. And I think the ultimate answer to
814
00:47:22.809 --> 00:47:24.250 A:middle L:90%
that is what you just said. If it's being
815
00:47:24.250 --> 00:47:30.150 A:middle L:90%
used and being referred to. Yeah, kind of
816
00:47:30.159 --> 00:47:30.869 A:middle L:90%
following up on that. I mean, I think
817
00:47:30.869 --> 00:47:36.079 A:middle L:90%
they're in philosophy. A couple of interesting success stories
818
00:47:36.090 --> 00:47:38.510 A:middle L:90%
. I'm thinking of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy and
819
00:47:38.510 --> 00:47:42.800 A:middle L:90%
the Internet Encyclopedia philosophy, and both of those,
820
00:47:43.079 --> 00:47:45.929 A:middle L:90%
particularly Stanford Encyclopedia, are respected enough sources that I've
821
00:47:45.929 --> 00:47:51.099 A:middle L:90%
seen, Uh, the citations for articles from the
822
00:47:51.099 --> 00:47:52.820 A:middle L:90%
SCP increased dramatically in the last couple of years,
823
00:47:52.820 --> 00:47:55.760 A:middle L:90%
so big names in the field are comfortable citing articles
824
00:47:55.760 --> 00:48:01.099 A:middle L:90%
from this Internet encyclopedia as primary sources. And I
825
00:48:01.099 --> 00:48:05.949 A:middle L:90%
think part of what drives that success is that it's
826
00:48:05.949 --> 00:48:07.550 A:middle L:90%
sort of a hybrid model. So these things are
827
00:48:07.550 --> 00:48:12.519 A:middle L:90%
freely accessible, but they aren't anonymous, and there's
828
00:48:12.519 --> 00:48:17.590 A:middle L:90%
a stable, identifiable editorship so that you have.
829
00:48:19.070 --> 00:48:21.369 A:middle L:90%
It's not just whether people use it is whether you
830
00:48:21.369 --> 00:48:22.909 A:middle L:90%
can use it and associate a name or brand with
831
00:48:22.909 --> 00:48:28.409 A:middle L:90%
that particular sort of product and you get comfortable with
832
00:48:28.409 --> 00:48:30.099 A:middle L:90%
it enough. Then you're comfortable. If you're willing
833
00:48:30.099 --> 00:48:32.630 A:middle L:90%
to take a gamble on the next thing that comes
834
00:48:32.630 --> 00:48:37.769 A:middle L:90%
out in that I think there's say one thing real
835
00:48:37.769 --> 00:48:40.119 A:middle L:90%
quick. There's another aspect to it, so open
836
00:48:40.119 --> 00:48:43.659 A:middle L:90%
. De Esa is called open de esa because it's
837
00:48:43.659 --> 00:48:46.219 A:middle L:90%
an open source project and What's significant about that is
838
00:48:46.219 --> 00:48:52.190 A:middle L:90%
it's not a textbook, it's a collection of material
839
00:48:52.769 --> 00:48:55.059 A:middle L:90%
, and it's meant to be highly configurable so that
840
00:48:55.059 --> 00:48:59.219 A:middle L:90%
an instructor can come in and configure their textbook from
841
00:48:59.219 --> 00:49:00.449 A:middle L:90%
the body of material. And if they want to
842
00:49:00.449 --> 00:49:02.090 A:middle L:90%
, depending on how much effort they want to put
843
00:49:02.090 --> 00:49:06.079 A:middle L:90%
in, they can make changes easy to make changes
844
00:49:06.079 --> 00:49:07.320 A:middle L:90%
to the wording of text. Harder to write your
845
00:49:07.320 --> 00:49:10.559 A:middle L:90%
own visualizations, but the system allows that and let
846
00:49:10.559 --> 00:49:14.500 A:middle L:90%
you put them together in different ways. Mhm,
847
00:49:15.969 --> 00:49:17.730 A:middle L:90%
Yes, sir, isn't I mean, the test
848
00:49:17.730 --> 00:49:21.900 A:middle L:90%
of the quality isn't the same. Weather is open
849
00:49:22.269 --> 00:49:25.599 A:middle L:90%
or whether it's virtually published. I see textbooks that
850
00:49:25.599 --> 00:49:29.219 A:middle L:90%
come out and there's one edition and you never see
851
00:49:29.219 --> 00:49:30.889 A:middle L:90%
it again. Another textbooks are under seven and eight
852
00:49:30.900 --> 00:49:35.000 A:middle L:90%
and 12 editions because people are using them and buying
853
00:49:35.000 --> 00:49:37.440 A:middle L:90%
, and it seems as though that's that's the review
854
00:49:37.449 --> 00:49:39.730 A:middle L:90%
. It doesn't matter if it's come out, really
855
00:49:39.750 --> 00:49:42.989 A:middle L:90%
that's available on the Internet, or if somebody's published
856
00:49:43.000 --> 00:49:46.409 A:middle L:90%
getting$150 for the sessions. Also, you're still
857
00:49:46.420 --> 00:49:53.929 A:middle L:90%
trying to get. Except that perhaps, if you
858
00:49:53.929 --> 00:49:58.210 A:middle L:90%
no one can use, you know, Traveler reviews
859
00:49:58.210 --> 00:50:00.380 A:middle L:90%
on Travelocity in finding a hotel as an example,
860
00:50:00.389 --> 00:50:04.800 A:middle L:90%
or perhaps the number of views on YouTube as an
861
00:50:04.800 --> 00:50:07.670 A:middle L:90%
indicator of whether something is really valuable. And I'm
862
00:50:07.670 --> 00:50:10.260 A:middle L:90%
not sure it's all. You have the right people
863
00:50:10.269 --> 00:50:15.679 A:middle L:90%
actually evaluating the content in those cases, you have
864
00:50:15.360 --> 00:50:17.440 A:middle L:90%
people who are not experts in the field, and
865
00:50:17.440 --> 00:50:21.730 A:middle L:90%
particularly as you move to levels of content that are
866
00:50:21.869 --> 00:50:24.300 A:middle L:90%
highly technical, the question is, if it only
867
00:50:24.300 --> 00:50:27.860 A:middle L:90%
gets a few views, does that mean it's not
868
00:50:27.869 --> 00:50:29.969 A:middle L:90%
that good? And, you know, I do
869
00:50:29.969 --> 00:50:31.099 A:middle L:90%
think the whole issue of quality is an important one
870
00:50:31.099 --> 00:50:37.389 A:middle L:90%
, and publishers have traditionally provided the the quality,
871
00:50:37.400 --> 00:50:38.920 A:middle L:90%
set the bar at a certain level for quality.
872
00:50:38.920 --> 00:50:45.679 A:middle L:90%
And I think open resources begs the question. Where
873
00:50:45.679 --> 00:50:47.039 A:middle L:90%
is that bar and really, how do we make
874
00:50:47.039 --> 00:50:52.579 A:middle L:90%
that distinction between something that's accurate and good quality versus
875
00:50:52.579 --> 00:50:57.429 A:middle L:90%
something that simply has achieved a lot of hits or
876
00:50:57.429 --> 00:51:00.699 A:middle L:90%
a Google engine simply finds, because it's vastly popular
877
00:51:00.849 --> 00:51:02.489 A:middle L:90%
? I understand that, but I would think that
878
00:51:02.489 --> 00:51:06.170 A:middle L:90%
whether the text book that's out there is open or
879
00:51:06.170 --> 00:51:07.570 A:middle L:90%
whether it's paid for it, you have experts reviewing
880
00:51:07.570 --> 00:51:09.110 A:middle L:90%
it, who are the instructors that are going to
881
00:51:09.119 --> 00:51:12.969 A:middle L:90%
use it? They are experts. They look at
882
00:51:12.969 --> 00:51:15.320 A:middle L:90%
that open access. They say this is crap.
883
00:51:15.329 --> 00:51:17.179 A:middle L:90%
They're not going to use it. Good. That's
884
00:51:17.179 --> 00:51:20.110 A:middle L:90%
the same thing they would do with a copy that
885
00:51:20.110 --> 00:51:22.280 A:middle L:90%
they're getting for examination. So there are experts.
886
00:51:23.260 --> 00:51:25.429 A:middle L:90%
They are looking at this. Indeed. In either
887
00:51:25.440 --> 00:51:28.880 A:middle L:90%
case, I want to add add one thing and
888
00:51:28.880 --> 00:51:32.880 A:middle L:90%
then take your questions. How many people in here
889
00:51:32.880 --> 00:51:37.530 A:middle L:90%
are familiar with faculty with textbook sales people coming to
890
00:51:37.530 --> 00:51:40.480 A:middle L:90%
your office to sell you things? Okay, um
891
00:51:40.489 --> 00:51:45.820 A:middle L:90%
, that's one thing that we do not have Open
892
00:51:45.829 --> 00:51:51.469 A:middle L:90%
resources don't have sales people, so I I just
893
00:51:51.469 --> 00:51:52.360 A:middle L:90%
want to throw that out there. I think there's
894
00:51:52.369 --> 00:51:55.079 A:middle L:90%
, um there's a lack of awareness. Sometimes in
895
00:51:55.090 --> 00:51:59.889 A:middle L:90%
in these cases where there is something good that is
896
00:51:59.889 --> 00:52:04.920 A:middle L:90%
freely available. Um, I'm okay. I'm gonna
897
00:52:04.920 --> 00:52:07.670 A:middle L:90%
argue with me. Cliff writes this thing and he
898
00:52:07.679 --> 00:52:09.409 A:middle L:90%
goes to a conference and he's talking to his colleagues
899
00:52:09.420 --> 00:52:12.349 A:middle L:90%
. He's saying, I've got this thing on the
900
00:52:12.360 --> 00:52:14.650 A:middle L:90%
internet, and I'd really like you to look at
901
00:52:14.650 --> 00:52:15.639 A:middle L:90%
it. Now if I'm a professor of computer science
902
00:52:15.650 --> 00:52:17.400 A:middle L:90%
, I'm gonna listen to him before I'm going to
903
00:52:17.400 --> 00:52:20.489 A:middle L:90%
listen to the rep from McGraw Hill telling you they
904
00:52:20.500 --> 00:52:22.869 A:middle L:90%
got there, so I think there is a sales
905
00:52:22.949 --> 00:52:28.800 A:middle L:90%
, I mean, exactly. So I think that
906
00:52:28.809 --> 00:52:31.619 A:middle L:90%
there are communities of practice now. Not everyone is
907
00:52:31.619 --> 00:52:36.480 A:middle L:90%
plugged into them. Especially, say some, you
908
00:52:36.480 --> 00:52:38.420 A:middle L:90%
know, new or adjunct professor or something who is
909
00:52:38.429 --> 00:52:43.210 A:middle L:90%
really connected. But experienced instructors generally a part of
910
00:52:43.210 --> 00:52:45.460 A:middle L:90%
community of of instructional practice. And they go to
911
00:52:45.460 --> 00:52:47.789 A:middle L:90%
those conferences and they talk to each other There on
912
00:52:47.789 --> 00:52:52.909 A:middle L:90%
the list serves good. Good. Yes, we
913
00:52:52.909 --> 00:52:57.440 A:middle L:90%
have done some research out Children healthier learning, but
914
00:52:57.449 --> 00:53:00.480 A:middle L:90%
which we can focus. Mhm, right. Okay
915
00:53:01.110 --> 00:53:06.079 A:middle L:90%
. And it's every lamp can allow this cliff talk
916
00:53:06.079 --> 00:53:08.440 A:middle L:90%
about, like for ensuring object, or maybe a
917
00:53:08.460 --> 00:53:12.949 A:middle L:90%
role model to have less the production. And we
918
00:53:12.960 --> 00:53:15.199 A:middle L:90%
have the content, and then your wife exercise or
919
00:53:15.210 --> 00:53:19.989 A:middle L:90%
practice for students that have assessed and then along this
920
00:53:19.989 --> 00:53:22.920 A:middle L:90%
land, with each component, you need to have
921
00:53:22.920 --> 00:53:25.389 A:middle L:90%
specific will have specific standards. For example, the
922
00:53:25.389 --> 00:53:29.599 A:middle L:90%
introduction probably need to produce what they're going to learn
923
00:53:29.610 --> 00:53:30.960 A:middle L:90%
. What they're going to get out of this and
924
00:53:30.969 --> 00:53:34.530 A:middle L:90%
very concise. And then you need to for the
925
00:53:34.530 --> 00:53:37.530 A:middle L:90%
content, you need to have multiple different format to
926
00:53:37.530 --> 00:53:42.610 A:middle L:90%
explain one idea, maybe textbook and maybe a nation
927
00:53:42.619 --> 00:53:45.820 A:middle L:90%
. Not that, um, so I forget that
928
00:53:45.829 --> 00:53:47.760 A:middle L:90%
the guide. And if people are interested, we
929
00:53:47.760 --> 00:53:51.199 A:middle L:90%
can share. This is a draft. There is
930
00:53:51.199 --> 00:53:52.710 A:middle L:90%
a benefit to anyone. We're on the stages of
931
00:53:52.719 --> 00:53:57.150 A:middle L:90%
trying to get family involved in identifying doctors. Of
932
00:53:57.150 --> 00:53:59.769 A:middle L:90%
course, because they mean those relate to develop.
933
00:54:00.889 --> 00:54:06.559 A:middle L:90%
We're working on some. Okay, Pretty. Right
934
00:54:07.239 --> 00:54:09.659 A:middle L:90%
. And but our focus is quality constructed exam,
935
00:54:10.340 --> 00:54:16.530 A:middle L:90%
the course people Mhm. What other questions? What
936
00:54:16.530 --> 00:54:21.730 A:middle L:90%
other themes are you seeing? Audience or panel in
937
00:54:21.730 --> 00:54:25.320 A:middle L:90%
these last few minutes? What are you guys getting
938
00:54:25.320 --> 00:54:30.800 A:middle L:90%
out? Seriously. Good question. Yeah, you
939
00:54:30.809 --> 00:54:38.519 A:middle L:90%
get boiled. I know, right? So yeah
940
00:54:38.530 --> 00:54:40.659 A:middle L:90%
. So and I've been on different sides of this
941
00:54:40.659 --> 00:54:43.710 A:middle L:90%
. I mean, I had a textbook published and
942
00:54:43.710 --> 00:54:45.900 A:middle L:90%
I made enough money to make it worth my while
943
00:54:45.900 --> 00:54:50.969 A:middle L:90%
from that, But Okay, so what I'm doing
944
00:54:50.969 --> 00:54:53.059 A:middle L:90%
here with this system and there's a fair number of
945
00:54:53.070 --> 00:54:54.989 A:middle L:90%
people involved, and there's a lot of many,
946
00:54:54.989 --> 00:54:58.079 A:middle L:90%
many, many, many hours involved in this.
947
00:54:58.840 --> 00:55:00.889 A:middle L:90%
Um, it's not a sustainable model. It's a
948
00:55:00.900 --> 00:55:04.530 A:middle L:90%
research project. Alright, I get NSF funding.
949
00:55:04.530 --> 00:55:06.730 A:middle L:90%
I get credit as a researcher, you know?
950
00:55:06.730 --> 00:55:09.010 A:middle L:90%
So, um okay. And I couldn't float it
951
00:55:09.010 --> 00:55:12.610 A:middle L:90%
if I didn't get those credits. And that funding
952
00:55:12.610 --> 00:55:14.940 A:middle L:90%
and so on right, even though a lot of
953
00:55:14.940 --> 00:55:16.719 A:middle L:90%
it's also volunteer. But all right, it fits
954
00:55:16.719 --> 00:55:20.059 A:middle L:90%
in with the model of what a faculty member does
955
00:55:21.139 --> 00:55:22.860 A:middle L:90%
. The 10th, one of these obviously can't use
956
00:55:22.860 --> 00:55:27.019 A:middle L:90%
that model. All right. Okay, so there's
957
00:55:27.019 --> 00:55:34.869 A:middle L:90%
another side of this. The computer gaming industry originally
958
00:55:34.869 --> 00:55:37.260 A:middle L:90%
was, you know, a couple of guys in
959
00:55:37.260 --> 00:55:39.250 A:middle L:90%
the garage making a fancy game and and somehow getting
960
00:55:39.250 --> 00:55:43.039 A:middle L:90%
it distributed. And over the years, the computer
961
00:55:43.039 --> 00:55:45.019 A:middle L:90%
gaming industry has turned into something that looks like the
962
00:55:45.019 --> 00:55:49.230 A:middle L:90%
movie industry. Right. Movies are built by big
963
00:55:49.239 --> 00:55:51.730 A:middle L:90%
groups of people. Computer games now are built by
964
00:55:51.730 --> 00:55:54.900 A:middle L:90%
big groups of people. Okay, as the sort
965
00:55:54.909 --> 00:55:59.039 A:middle L:90%
of thing we're talking about here of electronic textbooks with
966
00:55:59.039 --> 00:56:01.349 A:middle L:90%
a lot of support, their big ecosystems and infrastructure
967
00:56:01.829 --> 00:56:05.369 A:middle L:90%
, I imagine that they're going. The publishers are
968
00:56:05.369 --> 00:56:07.630 A:middle L:90%
going to start turning into movie houses. They're gonna
969
00:56:07.630 --> 00:56:09.750 A:middle L:90%
have groups of people working on it. Um,
970
00:56:10.130 --> 00:56:14.949 A:middle L:90%
now back to my own situation. So I'm hopefully
971
00:56:14.949 --> 00:56:16.130 A:middle L:90%
about to hit a big problem. And that big
972
00:56:16.130 --> 00:56:20.059 A:middle L:90%
problem is I'm hopefully going to be too successful that
973
00:56:20.059 --> 00:56:21.820 A:middle L:90%
I'm not gonna be able to do this as a
974
00:56:21.820 --> 00:56:24.010 A:middle L:90%
volunteer effort on in terms of my servers. Right
975
00:56:24.019 --> 00:56:28.809 A:middle L:90%
they're gonna overload my servers. All right, So
976
00:56:28.820 --> 00:56:32.329 A:middle L:90%
I'm talking to a textbook publisher, in essence,
977
00:56:32.340 --> 00:56:37.750 A:middle L:90%
all right, as a potential mechanism where this material
978
00:56:37.750 --> 00:56:39.849 A:middle L:90%
would still be open. Anybody who wants to go
979
00:56:39.860 --> 00:56:44.550 A:middle L:90%
to the website and do the practice exercises and look
980
00:56:44.550 --> 00:56:45.280 A:middle L:90%
at the content all they want for free. But
981
00:56:45.280 --> 00:56:50.340 A:middle L:90%
if a student wants credit from their instructor for having
982
00:56:50.340 --> 00:56:51.900 A:middle L:90%
done it, they may have to go to a
983
00:56:51.900 --> 00:56:53.980 A:middle L:90%
service provider, pay a textbook fee, not to
984
00:56:53.980 --> 00:56:57.699 A:middle L:90%
see the materials because they could, but to have
985
00:56:57.710 --> 00:57:00.380 A:middle L:90%
get credit for having done the exercises, done the
986
00:57:00.380 --> 00:57:01.730 A:middle L:90%
assignments, they would have to pay a fee for
987
00:57:01.730 --> 00:57:05.429 A:middle L:90%
that. And there's a value added because then they
988
00:57:05.440 --> 00:57:07.510 A:middle L:90%
give the spreadsheet back to the instructor, and so
989
00:57:07.510 --> 00:57:09.829 A:middle L:90%
on. That way I could unload the side of
990
00:57:09.829 --> 00:57:12.150 A:middle L:90%
things. I have no interest. I have no
991
00:57:12.150 --> 00:57:15.019 A:middle L:90%
interest in being a service provider, and I would
992
00:57:15.019 --> 00:57:16.320 A:middle L:90%
like to get out from under that so that may
993
00:57:16.320 --> 00:57:20.300 A:middle L:90%
be where it's going to that there are service providers
994
00:57:20.300 --> 00:57:22.880 A:middle L:90%
who provide access to content, and the content may
995
00:57:22.880 --> 00:57:25.940 A:middle L:90%
be developed under the auspices of some kind of publisher
996
00:57:27.230 --> 00:57:30.679 A:middle L:90%
and sustainable that may be sustainable. I want to
997
00:57:30.679 --> 00:57:32.420 A:middle L:90%
ask that question, too, because for me it's
998
00:57:32.420 --> 00:57:36.420 A:middle L:90%
a little bit different. I like that model.
999
00:57:36.429 --> 00:57:38.769 A:middle L:90%
But, uh, for me, the reason for
1000
00:57:38.769 --> 00:57:43.530 A:middle L:90%
making this open source was a mutual benefit calculation.
1001
00:57:43.530 --> 00:57:45.300 A:middle L:90%
Now I'm doing all the upfront work, which is
1002
00:57:45.300 --> 00:57:51.650 A:middle L:90%
substantial. But if it achieves even modest success,
1003
00:57:52.230 --> 00:57:55.260 A:middle L:90%
I glean there's the content in one of these things
1004
00:57:55.260 --> 00:57:59.659 A:middle L:90%
is enormous, and what I'm suggesting to substitute is
1005
00:57:59.659 --> 00:58:01.739 A:middle L:90%
even more enormous. It's more than I can reasonably
1006
00:58:01.750 --> 00:58:05.119 A:middle L:90%
. For us, that book is probably 1/10 of
1007
00:58:05.130 --> 00:58:09.019 A:middle L:90%
the work, right? Right, And I made
1008
00:58:09.019 --> 00:58:13.969 A:middle L:90%
this open expressly so that I could build and draw
1009
00:58:13.980 --> 00:58:15.909 A:middle L:90%
on a community. I benefit from the final product
1010
00:58:15.909 --> 00:58:19.050 A:middle L:90%
as much as they do. I'm just trying to
1011
00:58:19.050 --> 00:58:21.039 A:middle L:90%
get the ball rolling as it were, and,
1012
00:58:21.050 --> 00:58:22.019 A:middle L:90%
uh, and have a framework set up. So
1013
00:58:22.019 --> 00:58:23.889 A:middle L:90%
it's easy for people to contribute, and then I
1014
00:58:23.889 --> 00:58:27.949 A:middle L:90%
want to sort of suck in everything that I can
1015
00:58:28.820 --> 00:58:30.449 A:middle L:90%
, so I gain in my you know, I
1016
00:58:30.449 --> 00:58:32.320 A:middle L:90%
have instructional needs. You gotta be satisfied one or
1017
00:58:32.320 --> 00:58:35.670 A:middle L:90%
the other. Anyway, if I invest this this
1018
00:58:35.670 --> 00:58:38.130 A:middle L:90%
amount of time, hopefully it pays off in content
1019
00:58:38.139 --> 00:58:39.630 A:middle L:90%
. I could just add a postscript to that very
1020
00:58:39.630 --> 00:58:43.610 A:middle L:90%
quickly, but Everyone who is involved in that collaborative
1021
00:58:43.610 --> 00:58:46.530 A:middle L:90%
process is being supported by someone to do that work
1022
00:58:46.539 --> 00:58:50.610 A:middle L:90%
. There is support coming from somewhere, and that
1023
00:58:50.610 --> 00:58:52.739 A:middle L:90%
support may not always be there. And it's his
1024
00:58:52.739 --> 00:58:54.860 A:middle L:90%
question is, where does it come from? Where
1025
00:58:54.869 --> 00:58:57.449 A:middle L:90%
does that support come from? Right now, it
1026
00:58:57.449 --> 00:59:00.070 A:middle L:90%
comes from Tech and the statement, I guess,
1027
00:59:00.070 --> 00:59:04.679 A:middle L:90%
and I would just ask your assistant professor, How
1028
00:59:04.679 --> 00:59:07.219 A:middle L:90%
is this playing in your 10 year decision? Very
1029
00:59:07.219 --> 00:59:13.369 A:middle L:90%
well, you know. So there has to be
1030
00:59:13.369 --> 00:59:15.929 A:middle L:90%
a department that's willing to accept this effort that you're
1031
00:59:15.940 --> 00:59:22.420 A:middle L:90%
putting as research as research and as part of the
1032
00:59:22.429 --> 00:59:25.019 A:middle L:90%
teaching component. Likewise, I'd be an advocate for
1033
00:59:25.210 --> 00:59:30.960 A:middle L:90%
counting somebody who maintains a blog as contributing to research
1034
00:59:30.960 --> 00:59:35.679 A:middle L:90%
effort. We've got to enter the 21st century for
1035
00:59:35.690 --> 00:59:37.820 A:middle L:90%
pizza. Yes, I don't disagree. I just
1036
00:59:37.829 --> 00:59:40.900 A:middle L:90%
think that there are a lot of places where that
1037
00:59:40.909 --> 00:59:43.880 A:middle L:90%
I don't agree. I don't think I didn't worry
1038
00:59:43.880 --> 00:59:47.840 A:middle L:90%
about that. But I mean, so you have
1039
00:59:47.849 --> 00:59:52.880 A:middle L:90%
grants to support. I do not support. Yes
1040
00:59:52.900 --> 01:00:00.449 A:middle L:90%
, yes, something, which is why it's happening
1041
01:00:00.449 --> 01:00:04.289 A:middle L:90%
this semester, right? Because you know how much
1042
01:00:04.289 --> 01:00:07.030 A:middle L:90%
work. It's not exactly a free time after dinner
1043
01:00:07.030 --> 01:00:10.909 A:middle L:90%
kind of where that could be really useful for anyone
1044
01:00:10.909 --> 01:00:14.599 A:middle L:90%
. I mean, a student I just wanted fell
1045
01:00:14.599 --> 01:00:16.110 A:middle L:90%
deeper and deeper, and I was one of those
1046
01:00:16.119 --> 01:00:19.239 A:middle L:90%
people. I took one logic course in college,
1047
01:00:20.010 --> 01:00:22.449 A:middle L:90%
even though I'm a scientist, one and I loved
1048
01:00:22.449 --> 01:00:25.090 A:middle L:90%
it. But I think I would. But you're
1049
01:00:25.090 --> 01:00:31.440 A:middle L:90%
still wondering why you draw those Venn diagrams. Okay
1050
01:00:32.710 --> 01:00:36.530 A:middle L:90%
. Um, yes, please. Let's let's keep
1051
01:00:36.530 --> 01:00:38.480 A:middle L:90%
talking. And I don't want to get too much
1052
01:00:38.480 --> 01:00:40.750 A:middle L:90%
into the nitty gritty, but you have a grant
1053
01:00:40.760 --> 01:00:45.710 A:middle L:90%
to do this, Can you tell? Not nearly
1054
01:00:45.710 --> 01:00:47.960 A:middle L:90%
enough. Actually, I'm I'm exhausting. My grant
1055
01:00:47.960 --> 01:00:50.570 A:middle L:90%
were pretty well out of money, but we have
1056
01:00:50.570 --> 01:00:52.710 A:middle L:90%
new grant proposals in for the next phase. So
1057
01:00:52.719 --> 01:00:59.579 A:middle L:90%
if if if that grant if that next funding cycle
1058
01:00:59.590 --> 01:01:02.039 A:middle L:90%
we get funded, then we'll be very happy campers
1059
01:01:02.039 --> 01:01:04.849 A:middle L:90%
. And we'll be able to do this for next
1060
01:01:04.849 --> 01:01:07.059 A:middle L:90%
several years. If we don't, Then I got
1061
01:01:07.059 --> 01:01:07.940 A:middle L:90%
to figure out you know how much I can get
1062
01:01:07.940 --> 01:01:13.219 A:middle L:90%
from volunteer efforts are obviously how much funding I get
1063
01:01:13.230 --> 01:01:15.909 A:middle L:90%
limits. How much I can do. It's a
1064
01:01:15.920 --> 01:01:21.840 A:middle L:90%
realities of academic life. So this just throw this
1065
01:01:21.840 --> 01:01:24.190 A:middle L:90%
out, You know what I mean? The library
1066
01:01:24.199 --> 01:01:29.309 A:middle L:90%
gets fees from students. And what if we took
1067
01:01:29.320 --> 01:01:32.139 A:middle L:90%
$1 that from every season? That 5. 30,000
1068
01:01:32.710 --> 01:01:37.159 A:middle L:90%
? Right? We said we went to a professor
1069
01:01:37.269 --> 01:01:40.480 A:middle L:90%
. We'd like you to start developing$30,000. I
1070
01:01:40.489 --> 01:01:43.909 A:middle L:90%
think there is that process in place. Actually,
1071
01:01:44.170 --> 01:01:45.960 A:middle L:90%
would that be? Is that enough to make a
1072
01:01:45.969 --> 01:01:50.760 A:middle L:90%
professor interested? Or is that just, um they
1073
01:01:50.760 --> 01:01:52.320 A:middle L:90%
might get a naive professor interested. And once they
1074
01:01:52.320 --> 01:01:54.659 A:middle L:90%
start, they may be stuck and have to keep
1075
01:01:54.670 --> 01:01:59.139 A:middle L:90%
going. It's gonna be somebody's gotta Yeah. What
1076
01:01:59.809 --> 01:02:02.050 A:middle L:90%
? Well, this isn't directly. I've been very
1077
01:02:02.050 --> 01:02:05.519 A:middle L:90%
frustrated. Um, and it may simply be because
1078
01:02:05.519 --> 01:02:07.699 A:middle L:90%
I'm ignorant of what's available, but I've tried.
1079
01:02:07.710 --> 01:02:09.960 A:middle L:90%
So when I started to put this together, I
1080
01:02:09.969 --> 01:02:15.639 A:middle L:90%
went to t loss and I asked them a simple
1081
01:02:15.639 --> 01:02:17.340 A:middle L:90%
question to start with. Where can this live?
1082
01:02:17.349 --> 01:02:21.190 A:middle L:90%
I don't I don't maintain a server in the department
1083
01:02:21.199 --> 01:02:22.400 A:middle L:90%
. And if I wanted to, it would be
1084
01:02:22.400 --> 01:02:24.010 A:middle L:90%
complicated for us because we just don't have the infrastructure
1085
01:02:24.019 --> 01:02:28.119 A:middle L:90%
and expensive. So where could this live? And
1086
01:02:28.130 --> 01:02:30.139 A:middle L:90%
and furthermore, you know, I wanted to ask
1087
01:02:30.139 --> 01:02:32.530 A:middle L:90%
some questions about appropriate frameworks. Uh, I'm not
1088
01:02:32.530 --> 01:02:35.829 A:middle L:90%
reinventing the wheel, and the answer was, Well
1089
01:02:35.829 --> 01:02:37.780 A:middle L:90%
, that's a good question. Like that shouldn't be
1090
01:02:37.780 --> 01:02:43.210 A:middle L:90%
the answer there needs to be. I would like
1091
01:02:43.210 --> 01:02:45.590 A:middle L:90%
to see some resources not necessarily put into developing a
1092
01:02:45.599 --> 01:02:51.809 A:middle L:90%
particular material, but having a very clear, uh
1093
01:02:52.000 --> 01:02:55.429 A:middle L:90%
, place where someone who is willing or has funding
1094
01:02:55.429 --> 01:02:59.940 A:middle L:90%
is motivated to produce such a project can get some
1095
01:02:59.949 --> 01:03:01.210 A:middle L:90%
some guidance, uh, someone who's new to the
1096
01:03:01.210 --> 01:03:04.739 A:middle L:90%
process. I mean, I at least have a
1097
01:03:04.739 --> 01:03:07.039 A:middle L:90%
background in. You know, I've written a great
1098
01:03:07.039 --> 01:03:07.849 A:middle L:90%
deal of code, not for Web development, but
1099
01:03:07.849 --> 01:03:10.199 A:middle L:90%
at least I know my way around a machine like
1100
01:03:10.199 --> 01:03:13.139 A:middle L:90%
this. But there are plenty of other professors who
1101
01:03:13.139 --> 01:03:15.409 A:middle L:90%
might want to try something like this who don't and
1102
01:03:15.420 --> 01:03:19.889 A:middle L:90%
they'd be even more lost at the beginning And that
1103
01:03:19.900 --> 01:03:21.510 A:middle L:90%
that I found to be very trust to me.
1104
01:03:21.519 --> 01:03:27.210 A:middle L:90%
I can tell you the fellow's name. He's the
1105
01:03:27.210 --> 01:03:31.010 A:middle L:90%
director now. I guess, uh, I'll have
1106
01:03:31.010 --> 01:03:32.719 A:middle L:90%
to look it up for you afterward. I've forgotten
1107
01:03:34.340 --> 01:03:37.860 A:middle L:90%
Brian. Yeah, that's part of the problem,
1108
01:03:39.840 --> 01:03:45.800 A:middle L:90%
right? They library a number of years ago started
1109
01:03:45.800 --> 01:03:50.699 A:middle L:90%
something very called the Electronic Journals Project. It seems
1110
01:03:50.699 --> 01:03:53.630 A:middle L:90%
to me that the life would be the ideal place
1111
01:03:53.780 --> 01:03:59.519 A:middle L:90%
to have a digital tech center or something of that
1112
01:03:59.519 --> 01:04:05.300 A:middle L:90%
sort and host the good. The server. It
1113
01:04:05.309 --> 01:04:08.969 A:middle L:90%
means it's just a no brainer for me. I
1114
01:04:08.969 --> 01:04:11.409 A:middle L:90%
wouldn't take money away from the library. Was still
1115
01:04:11.409 --> 01:04:15.210 A:middle L:90%
not as popular. Yeah, for Major research University
1116
01:04:16.090 --> 01:04:19.920 A:middle L:90%
. Never mind. Don't get, But it seems
1117
01:04:19.920 --> 01:04:25.510 A:middle L:90%
to vibrate would be an ideal place, Damon.
1118
01:04:25.989 --> 01:04:31.559 A:middle L:90%
Mhm. Thank you. Get well soon. We
1119
01:04:31.559 --> 01:04:34.789 A:middle L:90%
have various partners around the university. So, um
1120
01:04:34.800 --> 01:04:39.030 A:middle L:90%
, we would love as just speaking from the library
1121
01:04:39.030 --> 01:04:41.349 A:middle L:90%
, but mainly myself. Um, we would love
1122
01:04:41.349 --> 01:04:45.000 A:middle L:90%
to continue this conversation about how to assist faculty who
1123
01:04:45.010 --> 01:04:51.070 A:middle L:90%
want to do more in these areas. So there
1124
01:04:51.070 --> 01:04:54.400 A:middle L:90%
are a few of us left still, and I
1125
01:04:54.400 --> 01:04:59.309 A:middle L:90%
would love for us to transition the the conversation into
1126
01:04:59.320 --> 01:05:01.559 A:middle L:90%
some smaller groups around some specific topics. Um,
1127
01:05:01.570 --> 01:05:04.019 A:middle L:90%
we would love for you all to stay. If
1128
01:05:04.019 --> 01:05:05.679 A:middle L:90%
you feel like you need to go, please feel
1129
01:05:05.679 --> 01:05:09.579 A:middle L:90%
free. Um, about we're going to spend the
1130
01:05:09.579 --> 01:05:13.369 A:middle L:90%
next the next hour working on, um, some
1131
01:05:13.369 --> 01:05:16.179 A:middle L:90%
specific questions in smaller groups going around the tables,
1132
01:05:16.179 --> 01:05:21.650 A:middle L:90%
and we'll have probably uhh do it 10 to 12
1133
01:05:21.650 --> 01:05:25.420 A:middle L:90%
minutes for for each group. And then what?
1134
01:05:25.429 --> 01:05:28.699 A:middle L:90%
You can disband and move to different table with different
1135
01:05:28.710 --> 01:05:30.989 A:middle L:90%
people or the same people, if you really were
1136
01:05:30.000 --> 01:05:32.579 A:middle L:90%
, like hanging out with them. Um, so
1137
01:05:32.590 --> 01:05:36.130 A:middle L:90%
let's move on to that And thank you very much
1138
01:05:36.139 --> 01:05:41.190 A:middle L:90%
. Again for coming. All of you know what
1139
01:05:41.190 --> 01:05:42.590 A:middle L:90%
you think? Yeah.