Department of PhysicsNo Descriptionhttps://hdl.handle.net/10919/242112024-04-25T05:53:26Z2024-04-25T05:53:26Z11291Improving the performance of cryogenic calorimeters with nonlinear multivariate noise cancellation algorithmsVetter, K. J.Beretta, M.Capelli, C.Corso, F. D.Hansen, E. V.Huang, R. G.Kolomensky, Yu. G.Marini, L.Nutini, I.Singh, V.Torres, A.Welliver, B.Zimmermann, S.Zucchelli, S.https://hdl.handle.net/10919/1183042024-03-11T21:05:37Z2024-03-08T00:00:00Zdc.title: Improving the performance of cryogenic calorimeters with nonlinear multivariate noise cancellation algorithms
dc.contributor.author: Vetter, K. J.; Beretta, M.; Capelli, C.; Corso, F. D.; Hansen, E. V.; Huang, R. G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Marini, L.; Nutini, I.; Singh, V.; Torres, A.; Welliver, B.; Zimmermann, S.; Zucchelli, S.
dc.description.abstract: State-of-the-art physics experiments require high-resolution, low-noise, and low-threshold detectors to achieve competitive scientific results. However, experimental environments invariably introduce sources of noise, such as electrical interference or microphonics. The sources of this environmental noise can often be monitored by adding specially designed “auxiliary devices” (e.g. microphones, accelerometers, seismometers, magnetometers, and antennae). A model can then be constructed to predict the detector noise based on the auxiliary device information, which can then be subtracted from the true detector signal. Here, we present a multivariate noise cancellation algorithm which can be used in a variety of settings to improve the performance of detectors using multiple auxiliary devices. To validate this approach, we apply it to simulated data to remove noise due to electromagnetic interference and microphonic vibrations. We then employ the algorithm to a cryogenic light detector in the laboratory and show an improvement in the detector performance. Finally, we motivate the use of nonlinear terms to better model vibrational contributions to the noise in thermal detectors. We show a further improvement in the performance of a particular channel of the CUORE detector when using the nonlinear algorithm in combination with optimal filtering techniques.
2024-03-08T00:00:00ZNotes on gauging noninvertible symmetries. Part I. Multiplicity-free casesPerez-Lona, AlonsoRobbins, D.Sharpe, E.Vandermeulen, T.Yu, X.https://hdl.handle.net/10919/1182042024-02-28T17:05:57Z2024-02-21T00:00:00Zdc.title: Notes on gauging noninvertible symmetries. Part I. Multiplicity-free cases
dc.contributor.author: Perez-Lona, Alonso; Robbins, D.; Sharpe, E.; Vandermeulen, T.; Yu, X.
dc.description.abstract: In this paper we discuss gauging noninvertible zero-form symmetries in two dimensions. We specialize to certain gaugeable cases, specifically, fusion categories of the form for a suitable Hopf algebra (which includes the special case Rep(G) for G a finite group). We also specialize to the case that the fusion category is multiplicity-free. We discuss how to construct a modular-invariant partition function from a choice of Frobenius algebra structure on . We discuss how ordinary G orbifolds for finite groups G are a special case of the construction, corresponding to the fusion category Vec(G) = Rep(ℂ[G]*). For the cases Rep(S3), Rep(D4), and Rep(Q8), we construct the crossing kernels for general intertwiner maps. We explicitly compute partition functions in the examples of Rep(S3), Rep(D4), Rep(Q8), and , and discuss applications in c = 1 CFTs. We also discuss decomposition in the special case that the entire noninvertible symmetry group acts trivially.
2024-02-21T00:00:00ZDopamine and serotonin in human substantia nigra track social context and value signals during economic exchangeBatten, Seth R.Bang, DanKopell, Brian H.Davis, Arianna N.Heflin, MatthewFu, QixiuPerl, OferZiafa, KimiaHashemi, AliceSaez, IgnacioBarbosa, Leonardo S.Twomey, ThomasLohrenz, TerryWhite, Jason P.Dayan, PeterCharney, Alexander W.Figee, MartijnMayberg, Helen S.Kishida, Kenneth T.Gu, XiaosiMontague, P. Readhttps://hdl.handle.net/10919/1181962024-02-27T17:13:30Z2024-02-26T00:00:00Zdc.title: Dopamine and serotonin in human substantia nigra track social context and value signals during economic exchange
dc.contributor.author: Batten, Seth R.; Bang, Dan; Kopell, Brian H.; Davis, Arianna N.; Heflin, Matthew; Fu, Qixiu; Perl, Ofer; Ziafa, Kimia; Hashemi, Alice; Saez, Ignacio; Barbosa, Leonardo S.; Twomey, Thomas; Lohrenz, Terry; White, Jason P.; Dayan, Peter; Charney, Alexander W.; Figee, Martijn; Mayberg, Helen S.; Kishida, Kenneth T.; Gu, Xiaosi; Montague, P. Read
dc.description.abstract: Dopamine and serotonin are hypothesized to guide social behaviours. In humans, however, we have not yet been able to study neuromodulator dynamics as social interaction unfolds. Here, we obtained subsecond estimates of dopamine and serotonin from human substantia nigra pars reticulata during the ultimatum game. Participants, who were patients with Parkinson’s disease undergoing awake brain surgery, had to accept or reject monetary offers of varying fairness from human and computer players. They rejected more offers in the human than the computer condition, an effect of social context associated with higher overall levels of dopamine but not serotonin. Regardless of the social context, relative changes in dopamine tracked trial-by-trial changes in offer value—akin to reward prediction errors—whereas serotonin tracked the current offer value. These results show that dopamine and serotonin fluctuations in one of the basal ganglia’s main output structures reflect distinct social context and value signals.
2024-02-26T00:00:00ZMolecular modeling of Poly(methyl methacrylate-block-acrylonitrile) as Precursors of Porous Carbon FibersHao, XiSerrano, JoelLiu, GuoliangCheng, Shengfenghttps://hdl.handle.net/10919/1181952024-03-01T20:31:33Z2023-04-22T00:00:00Zdc.title: Molecular modeling of Poly(methyl methacrylate-block-acrylonitrile) as Precursors of Porous Carbon Fibers
dc.contributor.author: Hao, Xi; Serrano, Joel; Liu, Guoliang; Cheng, Shengfeng
2023-04-22T00:00:00ZInducing stratification of colloidal mixtures with a mixed binary solventLiu, BinghanGrest, Gary S.Cheng, Shengfenghttps://hdl.handle.net/10919/1181772024-03-14T18:39:52Z2023-12-06T00:00:00Zdc.title: Inducing stratification of colloidal mixtures with a mixed binary solvent
dc.contributor.author: Liu, Binghan; Grest, Gary S.; Cheng, Shengfeng
dc.description.abstract: Molecular dynamics simulations are used to demonstrate that a binary solvent can be used to stratify colloidal mixtures when the suspension is rapidly dried. The solvent consists of two components, one more volatile than the other. When evaporated at high rates, the more volatile component becomes depleted near the evaporation front and develops a negative concentration gradient from the bulk of the mixture to the liquid-vapor interface while the less volatile solvent is enriched in the same region and exhibit a positive concentration gradient. Such gradients can be used to drive a binary mixture of colloidal particles to stratify if one is preferentially attracted to the more volatile solvent and the other to the less volatile solvent. During solvent evaporation, the fraction of colloidal particles preferentially attracted to the less volatile solvent is enhanced at the evaporation front, whereas the colloidal particles having stronger attractions with the more volatile solvent are driven away from the interfacial region. As a result, the colloidal particles show a stratified distribution after drying, even if the two colloids have the same size.
2023-12-06T00:00:00ZDiffusiophoresis as a physical mechanism underlying small-on-top stratification in evaporating bidisperse nanoparticle suspensionsLiu, BinghanGrest, GaryCheng, Shengfenghttps://hdl.handle.net/10919/1181512024-03-01T20:33:00Z2023-05-17T00:00:00Zdc.title: Diffusiophoresis as a physical mechanism underlying small-on-top stratification in evaporating bidisperse nanoparticle suspensions
dc.contributor.author: Liu, Binghan; Grest, Gary; Cheng, Shengfeng
2023-05-17T00:00:00ZMapping mechanical stress in curved epithelia of designed size and shapeMarin-Llaurado, AriadnaKale, SohanOuzeri, AdamSunyer, R.Torres-Sanchez, A.Latorre, E.Gomez-Gonzales, M.Roca-Cusach, P.Arroyo, M.Treapat, X.https://hdl.handle.net/10919/1180222024-04-09T17:51:09Z2023-07-07T00:00:00Zdc.title: Mapping mechanical stress in curved epithelia of designed size and shape
dc.contributor.author: Marin-Llaurado, Ariadna; Kale, Sohan; Ouzeri, Adam; Sunyer, R.; Torres-Sanchez, A.; Latorre, E.; Gomez-Gonzales, M.; Roca-Cusach, P.; Arroyo, M.; Treapat, X.
dc.description.abstract: The function of organs such as lungs, kidneys and mammary glands relies on the three-dimensional geometry of their epithelium. To adopt shapes such as spheres, tubes and ellipsoids, epithelia generate mechanical stresses that are generally unknown. Here we engineer curved epithelial monolayers of controlled size and shape andmap their state of stress. We design pressurized epithelia with circular, rectangular and ellipsoidal footprints. We develop a computational method, called curved monolayer stress microscopy, to map the stress tensor in these epithelia. This method establishes a correspondence between epithelial shape and mechanical stress without assumptions of material properties. In epithelia with spherical geometry we show that stress weakly increases with areal strain in a size-independent manner. In epithelia with rectangular and ellipsoidal cross-section we find pronounced stress anisotropies that impact cell alignment. Our approach enables a systematic study of how geometry and stress influence epithelial fate and function in three dimensions.
2023-07-07T00:00:00ZMathematical modeling of mechanosensitive reversal control in <i>Myxococcus xanthus</i>Chen, YiruiTopo, Elias J.Nan, BeiyanChen, Jinghttps://hdl.handle.net/10919/1179702024-04-12T18:45:29Z2024-01-08T00:00:00Zdc.title: Mathematical modeling of mechanosensitive reversal control in <i>Myxococcus xanthus</i>
dc.contributor.author: Chen, Yirui; Topo, Elias J.; Nan, Beiyan; Chen, Jing
dc.description.abstract: Adjusting motility patterns according to environmental cues is important for bacterial survival. Myxococcus xanthus, a bacterium moving on surfaces by gliding and twitching mechanisms, modulates the reversal frequency of its front-back polarity in response to mechanical cues like substrate stiffness and cell-cell contact. In this study, we propose that M. xanthus’s gliding machinery senses environmental mechanical cues during force generation and modulates cell reversal accordingly. To examine our hypothesis, we expand an existing mathematical model for periodic polarity reversal in M. xanthus, incorporating the experimental data on the intracellular dynamics of the gliding machinery and the interaction between the gliding machinery and a key polarity regulator. The model successfully reproduces the dependence of cell reversal frequency on substrate stiffness observed in M. xanthus gliding. We further propose reversal control networks between the gliding and twitching motility machineries to explain the opposite reversal responses observed in wild type M. xanthus cells that possess both motility mechanisms. These results provide testable predictions for future experimental investigations. In conclusion, our model suggests that the gliding machinery in M. xanthus can function as a mechanosensor, which transduces mechanical cues into a cell reversal signal.
2024-01-08T00:00:00ZQuantum cohomology from mixed Higgs-Coulomb phasesGu, WeiMelnikov, Ilarion V.Sharpe, Erichttps://hdl.handle.net/10919/1178602024-02-06T15:08:53Z2024-02-01T00:00:00Zdc.title: Quantum cohomology from mixed Higgs-Coulomb phases
dc.contributor.author: Gu, Wei; Melnikov, Ilarion V.; Sharpe, Eric
dc.description.abstract: We generalize Coulomb-branch-based gauged linear sigma model (GLSM)–computations of quantum cohomology rings of Fano spaces. Typically such computations have focused on GLSMs without superpotential, for which the low energy limit of the GLSM is a pure Coulomb branch, and quantum cohomology is determined by the critical locus of a twisted one-loop effective superpotential. We extend these results to cases for which the low energy limit of the GLSM includes both Coulomb and Higgs branches, where the latter is a Landau-Ginzburg orbifold. We describe the state spaces and products of corresponding operators in detail, comparing a geometric phase description, where the operator product ring is quantum cohomology, to the description in terms of Coulomb and Higgs branch states. As a concrete test of our methods, we compare to existing mathematics results for quantum cohomology rings of hypersurfaces in projective spaces.
2024-02-01T00:00:00ZNeutrino Flavor Model Building and the Origins of Flavor and <i>CP</i> ViolationAlmumin, YahyaChen, Mu-ChunCheng, MurongKnapp-Pérez, VíctorLi, YulunMondol, AdrejaRamos-Sánchez, SaúlRatz, MichaelShukla, Shreyahttps://hdl.handle.net/10919/1178072024-02-01T18:20:51Z2023-12-12T00:00:00Zdc.title: Neutrino Flavor Model Building and the Origins of Flavor and <i>CP</i> Violation
dc.contributor.author: Almumin, Yahya; Chen, Mu-Chun; Cheng, Murong; Knapp-Pérez, Víctor; Li, Yulun; Mondol, Adreja; Ramos-Sánchez, Saúl; Ratz, Michael; Shukla, Shreya
dc.description.abstract: The neutrino sector offers one of the most sensitive probes of new physics beyond the Standard Model of Particle Physics (SM). The mechanism of neutrino mass generation is still unknown. The observed suppression of neutrino masses hints at a large scale, conceivably of the order of the scale of a rand unified theory (GUT), which is a unique feature of neutrinos that is not shared by the charged fermions. The origin of neutrino masses and mixing is part of the outstanding puzzle of fermion masses and mixings, which is not explained ab initio in the SM. Flavor model building for both quark and lepton sectors is important in order to gain a better understanding of the origin of the structure of mass hierarchy and flavor mixing, which constitute the dominant fraction of the SM parameters. Recent activities in neutrino flavor model building based on non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries and modular flavor symmetries have been shown to be a promising direction to explore. The emerging models provide a framework that has a significantly reduced number of undetermined parameters in the flavor sector. In addition, such a framework affords a novel origin of <inline-formula><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" display="inline"><semantics><mi mathvariant="script">C</mi></semantics></math></inline-formula><inline-formula><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" display="inline"><semantics><mi mathvariant="script">P</mi></semantics></math></inline-formula> violation from group theory due to the intimate connection between physical <inline-formula><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" display="inline"><semantics><mi mathvariant="script">C</mi></semantics></math></inline-formula><inline-formula><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" display="inline"><semantics><mi mathvariant="script">P</mi></semantics></math></inline-formula> transformation and group theoretical properties of non-Abelian discrete groups. Model building based on non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries and their modular variants enables the particle physics community to interpret the current and anticipated upcoming data from neutrino experiments. Non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries and their modular variants can result from compactification of a higher-dimensional theory. Pursuit of flavor model building based on such frameworks thus also provides the connection to possible UV completions: in particular, to string theory. We emphasize the importance of constructing models in which the uncertainties of theoretical predictions are smaller than, or at most compatible with, the error bars of measurements in neutrino experiments. While there exist proof-of-principle versions of bottom-up models in which the theoretical uncertainties are under control, it is remarkable that the key ingredients of such constructions were discovered first in top-down model building. We outline how a successful unification of bottom-up and top-down ideas and techniques may guide us towards a new era of precision flavor model building in which future experimental results can give us crucial insights into the UV completion of the SM.
2023-12-12T00:00:00Z