Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Antiproliferative and Antiplasmodial Natural Products from Plants
As part of an International Cooperative Biodiversity Group (ICBG) program and a collaborative research project with the Natural Products Discovery Institute, four plant extracts were investigated for their antiproliferative and antiplasmodial activities. With the guidance of bioassay guided fractionation, two known antiproliferative terpenoids (2.1 and 2.2) were isolated from Hypoestes sp. (Acanthaceae), four known antiplasmodial liminoids (3.1-3.4) were isolated from Carapa guianensis (Meliaceae), one inactive terpenoid (4.1) was isolated from Erica maesta (Ericaceae), and four cerebrosides (4.2-4.5) were obtained from Hohenbergia antillana (Bromeliaceae).
The structures of these compounds were elucidated by using 1D (1H and 13C), 2D (HMBC, HSQC, COSY, NOESY) NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The structures of the compounds were also confirmed by comparing them with reported values from the literature.
Compounds 2.1 and 2.2 showed moderate antiproliferative activity against the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line with IC50 values of 6.9 uM and 3.4 uM, respectively. They also exhibited moderate antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain Dd2 with IC50 values of 9.9 ± 1.4 uM and 2.8 ± 0.7 uM, respectively. Compounds 3.1 to 3.4 had moderate antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum Dd2 strain with IC50 values of 2.0 ± 0.3 uM, 2.1 ± 0.1 uM, 2.1 ± 0.2 uM and 2.8 ± 0.2 uM, respectively. Compounds 4.1 and 4.2 showed very weak antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum Dd2 strain, with IC50 values between 5 and 10 ug/mL.