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  • Value Creation and Tension in Coopetition: The Emergence of Virtuous and Vicious Cycles
    Ryan-Charleton, Tadhg; Gnyawali, Devi R. (Academy of Management, 2021-08)
    Literature on tension in coopetition has focused almost exclusively on ‘simultaneity tension’, which is rooted in the interplay of simultaneous competition and cooperation. Our paper identifies and unpacks a distinct ‘value tension’ which occurs due to simultaneous firm value creation and joint value creation in coopetition. We layout incompatibilities between firm value creation, which is collaborative, and joint value creation, which is cooperative, and articulate the inherent challenges of pursuing both simultaneously. Efforts to pursue both can pull resources in opposing directions, forego scale and scope advantages, and undermine isolating mechanisms that are at odds with each other. We illuminate positive and negative synergies depending on the extent to which firm value creation and joint value creation are pursued simultaneously and how the ensuing tension is managed. We suggest that subsequent behaviors may reinforce the positives, leading to virtuous cycles, or negatives, leading to vicious cycles. Our integration of the coopetition literatures on tension and value with broader strategic management discourse regarding value creation provides novel future-focused insights concerning coopetition and interorganizational relationships.
  • Strategic Alliance Outcomes: Consolidation and New Directions
    Ryan Charleton, Tadhg; Gnyawali, Devi; Oliveria, Nuno (Academy of Management, 2022-07)
    The pursuit of outcomes is the raison d’^etre for strategic alliances, yet the literature on outcomes is rather fragmented. Moreover, conceptual and empirical confusion exists between strategic alliance outcomes and how well the alliance is working. Important behavioral terms, such as conflict and tension, are also used without conceptual clarity. We tackle these issues by consolidating the spectrum of strategic alliance outcomes and explaining how outcomes are often intertwined. We also distill the literature regarding how well the alliance is working into three “functioning indicators” and highlight their conceptual distinctiveness vis-aa-vis outcomes. We disentangle the definitions and implications of three important behavioral issues in alliances—trade-offs, frictions, and tensions—and discuss how they are rooted in partner interdependence. Lastly, we offer an “outcome-centric” perspective on strategic alliances, which shifts the emphasis from outcomes as end results to the pursuit of outcomes as explanatory starting points.
  • Public announcements of employee recognitions from customers and customer satisfaction: Longitudinal effects in the healthcare context
    Arthur, Jeffrey B. (Elsevier, 2023-03)
    This study examines the impact of periodic public announcements of customers’ employee recognitions from a non-monetary employee recognition program on subsequent changes in the number of customers’ employee recognitions and customer satisfaction. Recognized employee customer-oriented behaviors (COB) include helping and comforting patients that go “above and beyond” frontline caregivers’ expected role behaviors. Theory-based hypotheses on the antecedents and consequences of monthly variation in the number of publicly announced COB recognitions are developed by integrating theory and research on determinants of employees’ prosocial behavior, incentive-based rewards, and social dynamics found in social cognitive theory. I find that the number of publicly announced recognitions in one period is positively related to the number of recognitions in the following period. Further, I find a non-linear S-shaped relationship between the number of publicly announced recognitions and average patient satisfaction scores that varies depending on the number of publicly announced recognitions each month.
  • Editorial Commentary
    Devers, Cynthia E. (SAGE, 2023-10-26)
  • The signaling effect of supplier's customer network instability on service price: Insights from the container shipping charter market
    Kumar, Pankaj; Nowinska, Agnieszka; Schramm, Hans-Joachim (Wiley, 2023-04)
    In a service exchange setting, the supply management literature generally assumes, with notable exceptions, the availability of complete information regarding supplier reliability. Highlighting the information asymmetry in supplier evaluation and using signaling theory, we argue that for a focal buyer, a supplier's downstream ego-network instability, that is, other buyers' turnover in a supplier's network from one period to the next, acts as a signal of supplier unreliability, thereby reducing the price that the buyer pays to the supplier in a service exchange. Furthermore, we suggest that focal buyer-supplier relationship strength and structural equivalence weaken the negative effect of instability because the buyer has a more direct and positive experience with the supplier. Using a dataset of 3263 unique dyads formed by 260 buyers (shipoperators) and 493 suppliers (shipowners) during the 2000-2018 period in the container shipping charter market, we find support for our hypotheses, except for the contingent effect of structural equivalence. Our study contributes to signaling literature and network research by developing a supplier's downstream ego-network instability as a salient heuristic for a focal buyer's pricing decisions. These findings equip buyer managers who may not accurately foresee supplier service quality in the charter market with a new supplier evaluation tool: a supplier's downstream ego-network instability.
  • How past trauma impacts emotional intelligence: Examining the connection
    Gottfredson, Ryan K.; Becker, William J. (Frontiers, 2023-05)
    Backed by both research and practice, the organizational psychology field has come to value emotional intelligence (EI) as being vital for leader and employee effectiveness. While this field values EI, it has paid little attention to the antecedents of emotional intelligence, leaving the EI domain without clarity on (1) why EI might vary across individuals, and (2) how to best develop EI. In this article, we rely on neuroscience and psychology research to make the case that past psychological trauma impacts later EI capabilities. Specifically, we present evidence that psychological trauma impairs the brain areas and functions that support EI. Establishing psychological trauma has valuable theoretical and practical implications that include providing an explanation of why EI might vary across individuals and providing a focus for improving EI: healing from past trauma. Further theoretical and practical implications for the field of organizational psychology are provided.
  • How much does the firm's alliance network matter?
    Kumar, Pankaj; Liu, Xiaojin; Zaheer, Akbar (Wiley, 2022-01-10)
    Research Summary Extant empirical work partitioning the variance in firm (business segment) profitability has identified industry, corporate parent, business segment, and time as key sources. However, this variance decomposition research stream has treated firms as atomistic, autonomous entities. We employ a fast-unfolding community-detection algorithm to detect firms' network memberships and use the Shapley Value method to isolate the effect of the firm's alliance network, in addition to industry, corporate parent, business segment, and year effects, on the variance in business unit performance. Our findings demonstrate that the effect of the firm's alliance network explains 11% of the variance in firm ROA among 16,381 business segments from 1979 through 1996. We also extend the time period through 2018 and find that our results broadly hold. Managerial Summary In the search for superior firm performance, managers typically focus their attention externally on profitable industries in which to operate, as well as internally on their firms' idiosyncratic and valuable resources and capabilities. In addition to these profitability sources, our work suggests another important, but heretofore overlooked, factor in the managerial quest for competitive advantage: the value-creating potential of alliance networks. We employ a machine-learning algorithm to detect firms' network memberships. Our findings indicate that as much as 11% of the variance in firm profitability (ROA) is explained by the network of alliances of which the firm is a part. Our study also implies that the emphasis on networks continues to be relevant in a technology age in which industry boundaries are blurring.
  • Security Simulations in Undergraduate Education: A Review
    Simpson, Joseph; Brantly, Aaron F. (Kennesaw State University, 2022-07)
    Several decades of research in simulation and gamification in higher education shows that simulations are highly effective in improving a range of outcomes for students including declarative knowledge and interest in the topic being taught. While there appears to be a broad array of options to provide education in an undergraduate setting related to security, no previous reviews have explored computer-based simulations covering all facets of security. Given the increasing importance and adoption of interdisciplinary educational programs, it is important to take stock of simulations as a tool to broaden the range of problems, perspectives, and solutions presented to students. Our review provides an overview of computer-based simulations in U.S. undergraduate institutions published in academic journals and conferences. We identify strengths and limitations of existing computer-based simulations as well as opportunities for future research.
  • Cracks in the wall: Entrepreneurial action theory and the weakening presumption of intended rationality
    Hunt, Richard A.; Lerner, Daniel A.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Badal, Sangeeta; Freeman, Michael A. (Elsevier, 2022-05)
    Entrepreneurship scholarship finds itself in something of a quandary concerning rationality. While an increasingly large body of empirical work has found evidence of less-deliberative and even impulsive drivers of business venturing, the dominant theories of entrepreneurial action remain anchored to the assumption that intended rationality is a defining attribute of entrepreneurship. The growing schism between entrepreneurial action theory (EAT) on the one hand, and empirics and practice on the other hand, represents a consequential and exciting opportunity for the field to revisit its core assumptions regarding rationality, particularly the presence, role, and function of rational intentionality. In this study, we undertake a review and exploratory investigation of the assertion that without reasoned intentionality there is no entrepreneurship. Our work generates three important insights that contribute to rethinking key facets of the most prominent and influential EATs: alternative, non-rational pathways to business venturing exist with a non-ignorable prevalence; a proclivity towards reasoned intentionality is not invariably prescriptive; and, less-reasoned, less-deliberative tendencies do not constitute an entrepreneurial death sentence. Rather, entrepreneurs (including highly successful ones) embody a shifting blend of rational and non-rational proclivities, motivations, decisions, and actions.
  • Surviving remotely: How job control and loneliness during a forced shift to remote work impacted employee work behaviors and well-being
    Becker, William J.; Belkin, Liuba Y.; Tuskey, Sarah E.; Conroy, Samantha A. (Wiley, 2022)
    This paper investigates the impact of job control and work-related loneliness on employee work behaviors and well-being during the massive and abrupt move to remote work amid the COVID-19 pandemic. We draw on job-demands control and social baseline theory to link employee perceived job control and work-related loneliness to emotional exhaustion and work-life balance and posit direct and indirect effects on employee minor counterproductive work behaviors, depression, and insomnia. Using a two-wave data collection with a sample of U.S. working adults to test our predictions, we find that high job control was beneficially related to emotional exhaustion and work-life balance, while high work-related loneliness showed detrimental relationships with our variables of interest. Moreover, we find that the beneficial impact of high perceived job control was conditional on individual segmentation preferences such that the effects were stronger when segmentation preference was low. Our research extends the literature on remote work, job control, and workplace loneliness. It also provides insights for human resource professionals to manage widespread remote work that is likely to persist long after the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Corporate entrepreneurship as a strategic approach for internal innovation performance
    Tseng, Chien-Chi; Tseng, Cheng (2019-04-15)
    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore corporate entrepreneurship and the relationship between intrapreneurship and the proposed strategic models through a literature review. This paper reviews the strategic approach for increasing internal innovation performance at corporations. Design/methodology/approach – Key words were identified to use in the literature search: corporate entrepreneurship, innovation performance and entrepreneurial environment. Then, all of the several electronic databases available in the university’s electronic library, including Harvard Business Review and The University of Chicago Press, as well as journals, books, Google Scholar and other institutional resources. Findings – The six innovative outcomes are motivating individuals to engage in innovative behavior, concentrating entrepreneurial ventures through a newly minted organization within a corporation, helping innovative-minded people to reach their full potential, rewarding a corporate entrepreneur, encouraging people to look at the organization from a broad perspective and educating employees about corporate entrepreneurship. Research limitations/implications – The study was exploratory, based on a literature review. Further studies are needed using empirical research to examine why corporate entrepreneurship was attributed to be the strategic approach for internal innovation performance. Practical implications – By implementing the strategic approaches, corporate management professionals can realize their entrepreneurial intentions for the firm and maintain their responsibility to shareholders in terms of other business and development goals. Originality/value – The research constructs an input-process-output framework that minimizes external mergers and acquisitions and maximizes internal innovation performance. Value was created when corporate entrepreneurship was identified as a strategic approach for internal innovation performance.
  • Adapting Pink Time to promote self-regulated learning across course and student types
    Baird, Timothy D.; Kniola, David J.; Hartter, Joel; Carlson, Kimberly; Rogers, Sarah; Russell, Don; Tise, Joseph (2020)
    To explore new opportunities to promote self-regulated learning (SRL) across a variety of contexts, this study applies a novel assignment called Pink Time in seven different courses at two universities. The assignment asks students to “skip class, do anything you want, and give yourself a grade.” In each case, instructors adapted Pink Time to fit the needs of their course. Altogether, 165 students completed 270 self-directed projects and self-assessments targeting five component behaviors of SRL. Findings show that: (1) students were more likely to perceive success in certain behaviors of SRL than in others; (2) students’ perceptions across courses were similar for some behaviors but not others; and (3) subsequent iterations of the assignment supported higher perceived measures of some SRL behaviors but not others. Together these findings illustrate the value and flexibility of this progressive assignment as well as persistent challenges in supporting students’ SRL.
  • Red Giants or Black Holes? The Antecedent Conditions and Multi-Level Impacts of Star Performers
    Asgari, Elham; Hunt, Richard A.; Lerner, Daniel A.; Townsend, David M.; Hayward, Mathew L. A.; Kiefer, Kip (Academy of Management, 2020-10-29)
    High-achieving employees, the “stars” of an organization, are widely credited with producing indispensable, irreplaceable, value-enhancing contributions. From the recruitment of celebrity CEOs to the fierce competition for star scientists, and from lucrative contracts for sports icons to out-sized bonuses for top salespeople, human capital strategies have long promoted the importance of star performers. Sixty years of research on stars has witnessed a wide array of contexts, levels of analysis, and sub-dimensions, much of which is focused on the accomplishments of these alphatail individuals. More recently, however, scholars have begun to draw varied conclusions regarding both the favorable and unfavorable impacts of star performers, leading to a balkanization of the perspectives comprising the stream. Our review of the multi-disciplinary work on stars synthesizes disparate studies, settles definitional problems, and integrates complementary factors into a coherent formative construct. Through this, we foster the development of a research agenda concerning the manner in which star performers are, by their very nature, simultaneously red giants and black holes, the precise balance of which is fertile soil for future inquiry.
  • COVID-19 and the importance of space in entrepreneurship research and policy
    Korsgaard, Steffen; Hurt, Richard A.; Townsend, David M.; Ingstrup, Mads Bruun (2020-10-15)
    Given the COVID-19 crisis, the importance of space in the global economic system has emerged as critical in a hitherto unprecedented way. Even as large-scale, globally operating digital platform enterprises find new ways to thrive in the midst of a crisis, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) nestled in local economies have proven to be fragile to shocks, causing countless local economies to unravel in the face of severe challenges to survival. Here, we discuss the role of entrepreneurship in re-building local economies that are more resilient. Specifically, we take a spatial perspective and highlight how the COVID-19 crisis has uncovered problems in the current tendency for thin contextualisation and promotion of globalisation. Based on this critique, we outline new perspectives for thinking about the relationship between entrepreneurship, resilience and local economies. Here, a particular emphasis is given to resilience building through deeply contextualised policies and research, localised flows of products and labour, and the diversification of local economies.
  • Nuances in the Interplay of Competition and Cooperation: Towards a Theory of Coopetition
    Gnyawali, Devi R.; Charleton, Tadhg Ryan (SAGE, 2018-09-01)
    Progress in coopetition research is impeded by two problems in the literature: (a) superficial conceptualization of simultaneity and outcomes and (b) lack of theorizing about core properties of coopetition and how they influence outcomes. This paper addresses these interrelated problems and charts a path towards a theory of coopetition. We systematically analyze competition and cooperation and illuminate how the interplay between specific aspects of competition and cooperation manifests through unique coopetition mechanisms. We explicate a range of possible outcomes from coopetition—joint value creation for all firms, value creation for individual firms, and value destruction—and suggest that coopetition mechanisms help explain how and why coopetition may lead to varying outcomes. Furthermore, we explain how effective navigation of simultaneity and value creation intent, two fundamental elements of coopetition, may be instrumental in deriving beneficial outcomes. Navigating simultaneity involves balancing competition and cooperation and maintaining both at moderately strong levels, and navigating value creation consists of managing the trade-off between joint value creation and firm value creation without compromising overall value creation. By explaining how coopetition manifests, what its unique underlying properties are, and how such properties influence outcomes, our paper provides a deeper understanding of the phenomenon and progresses the literature towards a theory of coopetition.
  • Killing Me Softly: Organizational E-mail Monitoring Expectations' Impact on Employee and Significant Other Well-Being
    Becker, William J.; Belkin, Liuba Y.; Conroy, Samantha A.; Tuskey, Sarah (SAGE, 2019-12-12)
    This paper tests the relationship between organizational expectations to monitor work-related electronic communication during nonwork hours and the health and relationship satisfaction of employees and their significant others. We integrate resource-based theories with research on interruptions to position organizational expectations for e-mail monitoring (OEEM) during nonwork time as a psychological stressor that elicits anxiety due to employee attention allocation conflict. E-mail–triggered anxiety, in turn, negatively affects the health and relationship quality of employees and their significant others. We conducted three studies to test our propositions. Using the experience sampling method with 108 working U.S. adults, Study 1 established within-employee effects of OEEM on anxiety, employee health, and relationship conflict. Study 2 used a sample of 138 dyads of full-time employees and their significant others to replicate detrimental health and relationship effects of OEEM through anxiety. It also showed crossover effects of OEEM on partner health and relationship satisfaction. Finally, Study 3 employed a two-wave data collection method with an online sample of 162 U.S. working adults to provide additional support for the OEEM construct as a distinct and reliable job stressor and replicated findings from Studies 1 and 2. Taken together, our research extends the literature on work-related electronic communication at the interface of work and nonwork boundaries, deepening our understanding of the impact of OEEM on employees and their families’ health and well-being.
  • Local Reasons to Give Globally: Identity Extension and Global Cooperation
    Buchan, Nancy R.; Jeong, Sophia Soyoung; Ward, Anna-Katherine (Springer Nature, 2017-11-14)
    Recent political events across the world suggest a retrenchment from globalization and a possible increase in parochialism. This inward-looking threat from parochialism occurs just as the global community faces growing challenges that require trans-national cooperation. In this research, we question if strong identification with an in-group necessarily leads to parochialism and ultimately is detrimental to global cooperation. Building on research on global social identification, we explore whether strong local identification can expand in inclusiveness to global identification, and among whom this is likely to happen. The results of our global public goods study - conducted in South Korea and the United States - show that high levels of social identification with a local group can extend to the global collective, particularly for individuals who are also high in concern-for-others. Furthermore, this identification translates into behavior that benefits the global, anonymous group at a cost to oneself. These results shed light on how to avoid the trap of parochialism and instead engender cooperative behavior with the broader global community.
  • Preference-driven biases in decision makers’ information search and evaluation
    Chaxel, Anne-Sophie; Russo, J. Edward; Kerimi, Neda (Society for Judgment and Decision Making (SJDM) and the European Association for Decision Making (EADM), 2013-09)
    While it is well established that the search for information after a decision is biased toward supporting that decision, the case of preference-supporting search before the decision remains open. Three studies of consumer choices consistently found a complete absence of a pre-choice bias toward searching for preference-supporting information. The absence of this confirming search bias occurred for products that were both hedonic and utilitarian, both expensive and inexpensive, and both high and low in expected brand loyalty. Experiment 3 also verified the presence of the expected post-choice search bias to support the chosen alternative. Therefore the absence of a pre-choice search bias in all three studies was not likely to be due to our using a method that was so insensitive that a search bias would not be observed under any circumstances. In addition to the absence of an effect of prior preferences on information selection, subjects’ self-reported search strategies exhibited a clear tendency toward a balance of positive and negative information. Across the three studies, we also tested for the presence of a preference-supporting bias in the evaluation of the information acquired in the search process. This evaluation bias was found both pre- and post-choice.
  • General open and closed queueing networks with blocking: A unified framework for approximation
    Vroblefski, Mark; Ramesh, R.; Zionts, Stanley (INFORMS, 2000)
    In this paper, we develop a unified framework for approximating open and closed queueing networks under any general blocking protocol by extending and generalizing the approximation algorithm for open tandem queues under minimal blocking presented in Di Mascolo et al. (1996). The proposed framework is based on decomposition. We develop decomposition structures and analysis algorithms for any general blocking system using the framework. The proposed algorithms have been extensively tested using simulations as a benchmarking device. The results show that the proposed framework yields robust, reliable, and accurate estimates of system characteristics, such as throughput and Work-in-process inventory in a wide range of system configurations. The computational load is minimal. The unified framework presents a highly useful set of tools of analysis for queueing-system designers to use in evaluating the performance under numerous design alternatives. Directions for future research are presented, with a focus on critical application areas such as packet-switching-network design and cellular manufacturing.