A frequency-velocity CNN for developing near-surface 2D vs images from linear-array, active-source wavefield measurements
Vantassel, Joseph P.
Cox, Brady R.
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This paper presents a frequency-velocity convolutional neural network (CNN) for rapid, non-invasive 2D shear wave velocity (VS) imaging of near-surface geo-materials. Operating in the frequency-velocity domain allows for significant flexibility in the linear-array, active-source experimental testing configurations used for generating the CNN input, which are normalized dispersion images. While normalized dispersion images retain the most important aspects of near-surface wavefields, they are relatively insensitive to the exact experimental testing configuration used to generate and record the wavefields, accommodating various source types, source offsets, numbers of receivers, and receiver spacings. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the frequency-velocity CNN by applying it to a common near-surface geophysics problem, namely, imaging a two-layer, undulating, soil-over -bedrock interface. The frequency-velocity CNN was trained and tested using 100,000 synthetic near-surface models with variable soil-over-bedrock conditions. Then, the ability of the frequency-velocity CNN to gener-alize across various acquisition configurations was rigorously tested using thousands of synthetic near-surface models with different acquisition configurations from that of the training set. Lastly, it was applied to experi-mental field data collected at the Hornsby Bend site in Austin, Texas, USA and found to produce a subsurface 2D image that was in great agreement with ground truth from invasive site characterization data.