Literature Review of Eye Injuries and Eye Injury Risk from Blunt Objects
Alphonse, Vanessa D.
Kemper, Andrew R.
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Eye injuries affect approximately two million people annually. Various studies that have evaluated the injury tolerance of animal and human eyes from blunt impacts are summarized herein. These studies date from the late 60s to present and illustrate various methods for testing animal and human cadaver eyes exposed to various blunt projectiles including metal rods, BBs, baseballs, and foam pieces. Experimental data from these studies have been used to develop injury risk curves to predict eye injuries based on projectile parameters such as kinetic energy and normalized energy. Recently, intraocular pressure (IOP) has been correlated to injury risk which allows eye injuries to be predicted when projectile characteristics are unknown. These experimental data have also been used to validate numerous computational and physical models of the eye used to assess injury risk from blunt loading. One such physical model is the the Facial and Ocular CountermeasUre Safety (FOCUS) headform, which is an advanced anthropomorphic device designed specifically to study facial and ocular injury. The FOCUS headform eyes have a biofidelic response to blunt impact and eye load cell data can be used to assess injury risk for eye injuries.