Testbed evaluation of virtual environment interaction techniques
Bowman, Doug A.
Johnson, D. B.
Hodges, Larry F.
MetadataShow full item record
As immersive virtual environment (VE) applications become more complex, it is clear that we need a firm understanding of the principles of VE interaction. In particular, designers need guidance in choosing three-dimensional interaction techniques. In this paper, we present a systematic approach, testbed evaluation, for the assessment of interaction techniques for VEs. Testbed evaluation uses formal frameworks and formal experiments with multiple independent and dependent variables to obtain a wide range of performance data for VE interaction techniques. We present two testbed experiments, covering techniques for the common VE tasks of travel and object selection/manipulation. The results of these experiments allow us to form general guidelines for VE interaction and to provide an empirical basis for choosing interaction techniques in VE applications. Evaluation of a real-world VE system based on the testbed results indicates that this approach can produce substantial improvements in usability.