Agent-Based Game Theory Modeling for Driverless Vehicles at Intersections
Rakha, Hesham A.
Kamalanathsharma, Raj K.
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This report presents three research efforts that were published in various journals. The first research effort presents a reactive-driving agent based algorithm for modeling driver left turn gap acceptance behavior at signalized intersections. This model considers the interaction between driver characteristics and vehicle physical capabilities. The model explicitly captures the vehicle constraints on driving behavior using a vehicle dynamics model. In addition, the model uses the driver's input and the psychological deliberation in accepting/rejecting a gap. The model is developed using a total of 301 accepted gaps and subsequently validated using 2,429 rejected gaps at the same site and also validated using 1,485 gap decisions (323 accepted and 1,162 rejected) at another site. The proposed model is considered as a mix between traditional and reactive methods for decision making and consists of three main components: input, data processing and output. The input component uses sensing information, vehicle and driver characteristics to process the data and estimate the critical gap value. Thereafter, the agent decides to either accept or reject the offered gap by comparing to a driver-specific critical gap (the offered gap should be greater than the critical gap for it to be accepted). The results demonstrate that the agent-based model is superior to the standard logistic regression model because it produces consistent performance for accepted and rejected gaps (correct predictions in 90% of the observations) and the model is easily transferable to different sites. The proposed modeling framework can be generalized to capture different vehicle types, roadway configurations, traffic movements, intersection characteristics, and weather effects on driver gap acceptance behavior. The findings of this research effort is considered as an essential stage for modeling autonomous/driverless vehicles The second effort develops a heuristic optimization algorithm for automated vehicles (equipped with cooperative adaptive cruise control CACC systems) at uncontrolled intersections using a game theory framework. The proposed system models the automated vehicles as reactive agents interacting and collaborating with the intersection controller (manager agent) to minimize the total delay. The system is evaluated using a case study considering two different intersection control scenarios: a four-way stop control and the proposed intersection controller framework. In both scenarios, four automated vehicles (a single vehicle per approach) were simulated using a Monte Carlo simulation that was repeated 1000 times. The results show that the proposed system reduces the total delay relative to a traditional stop control by 35 seconds on average, which corresponds to an approximately 70 percent reduction in the total delay. The third effort presents a new tool for optimizing the movements of autonomous/driverless vehicles through intersections: iCACC. The main concept of the proposed tool is to control vehicle trajectories using Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) systems to avoid collisions and minimize intersection delay. Simulations were executed to compare conventional signal control with iCACC considering two measures of effectiveness - delay and fuel consumption. Savings in delay and fuel consumption in the range of 91 and 82 percent relative to conventional signal control were demonstrated, respectively. It is anticipated that the findings of this report may contribute in the future of advanced vehicles control and connected vehicles applications.