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dc.contributor.authorvan Jaarsveld, A.en
dc.contributor.authorBiggs, R.en
dc.contributor.authorScholes, R.en
dc.contributor.authorBohensky, E.en
dc.contributor.authorReyers, B.en
dc.contributor.authorLynam, T.en
dc.contributor.authorMusvoto, C.en
dc.contributor.authorFabricius, C.en
dc.coverage.spatialSouthern Africaen
dc.coverage.temporal1990 - 2000en
dc.date.accessioned2016-04-19T18:09:17Zen
dc.date.available2016-04-19T18:09:17Zen
dc.date.issued2005en
dc.identifier597en
dc.identifier.citationPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological Sciences 360(1454): 425-441en
dc.identifier.issn0962-8436en
dc.identifier.issn1471-2970en
dc.identifier.other597_Measuring_conditions_and_trends_in_ecosys.pdfen
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/65643en
dc.description.abstractThe Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA) evaluated the relationships between ecosystem services and human well-being at multiple scales, ranging from local through to sub-continental. Trends in ecosystem services (fresh water, food, fuel-wood, cultural and biodiversity) over the period 1990-2000 were mixed across scales. Freshwater resources appear strained across the continent with large numbers of people not securing adequate supplies, especially of good quality water. This translates to high infant mortality patterns across the region. In some areas, the use of water resources for irrigated agriculture and urban-industrial expansion is taking place at considerable cost to the quality and quantity of freshwater available to ecosystems and for domestic use. Staple cereal production across the region has increased but was outstripped by population growth while protein malnutrition is on the rise. The much-anticipated wood-fuel crisis on the subcontinent has not materialized but some areas are experiencing shortages while numerous others remain vulnerable. Cultural benefits of biodiversity are considerable, though hard to quantify or track over time. Biodiversity resources remain at reasonable levels, but are declining faster than reflected in species extinction rates and appear highly sensitive to land-use decisions. The SAfMA sub-global assessment provided an opportunity to experiment with innovative ways to assess ecosystem services including the use of supply-demand surfaces, service sources and sink areas, priority areas for service provision, service "hotspots" and trade-off assessments.en
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdfen
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.publisherLondon, UK: The Royal Societyen
dc.rightsIn Copyrighten
dc.rights.urihttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/en
dc.subjectSocial impactsen
dc.subjectEcosystem managementen
dc.subjectDesert ecosystemsen
dc.subjectSemiarid zonesen
dc.subjectAquatic ecosystemsen
dc.subjectWildlife managementen
dc.subjectHumid zonesen
dc.subjectEcosystemen
dc.subjectEnvironmental impactsen
dc.subjectForest managementen
dc.subjectSubtropicsen
dc.subjectSubhumid zonesen
dc.subjectLand use managementen
dc.subjectForest ecosystemsen
dc.subjectConservationen
dc.subjectEconomic impactsen
dc.subjectSustainabilityen
dc.subjectHealth impactsen
dc.subjectAgricultural ecosystemsen
dc.subjectNatural resource managementen
dc.subjectHabitat destructionen
dc.subjectEcosystem servicesen
dc.subjectAssessmenten
dc.subjectSouthern african millennium ecosystem assessmenten
dc.subjectHuman well-beingen
dc.subjectMulti-scaleen
dc.subjectEcosystem Farm/Enterprise Scale Field Scaleen
dc.titleMeasuring conditions and trends in ecosystem services at multiple scales: The Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA) experienceen
dc.typeArticle - Refereeden
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2005 by The Royal Societyen
dc.contributor.departmentSustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management (SANREM) Knowledgebaseen
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2004.1594en
dc.type.dcmitypeTexten


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