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Crop-Livestock Interaction in Sub-Saharan Africa
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Despite the theoretical benefits of crop-livestock interaction, crop and animal production are not well integrated in sub-Saharan Africa. The transition from separate, extensive crop and animal production to integrated, more intensive forms has been difficult to achieve via projects. The mixed record of projects suggests that the way to achieve greater interaction is not well understood. In attempting to understand crop livestock relations, three basic ideas are proposed in this study: (1) crop-livestock interactions have been produced mainly by environmental differences, not by the availability of information or exogenous technologies; (2) in many areas, closer integration has occurred as a process of factor and input substitution, induced largely by population growth. In rarer instances exogenous technical changes have promoted integration; (3) many of the benefits of closer integration are small. Benefits in terms of crop and animal productivity and improved soil fertility are inherentlylimited by the low output response to such inputs as manure, crop residue and animal power. These themes are explored throughout the publication. Chapter 2 sketches the agricultural climates of the subcontinent as a background to the study. Chapter 3 sets out an evolutionary theory of crop-livestock interactions as a framework for analysing resource competition and complementarity. In Chapters 4 to 7, four themes are analysed in light of the main theory: animal traction, soil fertility maintenance, crop residue management, and animal production on the farm. The final chapter concludes with recommendations on policies, projects and research. (CAB Abstract)