Managing development programs for sustainability: Integrating development and research through adaptive management
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As sustainability becomes an increasingly common goal of international development programs, the need to focus on processes in addition to outcomes in program design, management, and evaluation becomes more apparent. Using a case study from the Philippines, this article explores how integrating development and research through adaptive management can help focus programs on process and sustainability. The case study programs - the Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management Collaborative Research Support Program (SANREM CRSP) and the International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF) - were found to be effectively contributing to sustainable development, not because of a commitment to any particular quantifiable outcomes, but because of a willingness to engage in an evolving, learning-oriented process that is responsive to local people, integrates development with research, and is rooted in adaptive management. A well-integrated system of monitoring and evaluation is essential to this learning process and to maintaining program relevance.