Production costs and input substitution in Zimbabwe's smallholder agriculture
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This article is based on an economic analysis on production costs for smallholders in Zimbabwe. The study tested production costs among socioeconomic groups. Although statistically insignificant, results show that costs are slightly higher for female-headed households. Prices are also higher for those who can only buy small quantities from local traders, who do not have their own transport, tools and equipment. Female-headed households present lower productivity due to sex discrimination seen in lack of resource access such as extension workers and lenders, and other unobservable variables like nutrition and health. Households without draft animals also show lower productivity. Statistically significant results show infrastructures, such as paved roads, as major factors determining production costs. Remote farmers have higher transaction costs.