Land use and economic change in the post-frontier upland Philippines
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On Palawan Island, in upland Philippines land use has been changing over time due to specialization in a particular crop of a few members of the household. At the same time, non-timber forest products collection has greatly increased. Restrictions, such as a ban on forest burning, changed cultivation patterns making it harder for households to sustain their livelihoods from farming alone. These changes are also rearranging women's roles in the household and regional economy. Women play an important role in long-term economic planning. In the upland where farming had ceased to be a way of life, they specialized in commercial production of vegetables, fruits and livestock. The author recognizes women's role in economic innovation and risk taking, as women engage in economic activities and the children. Upland farmers turn to NTFP collection to supplement their incomes. Agricultural production and technical changes in the lowlands has an impact on markets and forest clearing. The study is based on fieldwork research conducted in seven communities between 1995 and 2005.