Connected Motorcycle Crash Warning Interfaces
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Crash warning systems have been deployed in the high-end vehicle market segment for some time and are trickling down to additional motor vehicle industry segments each year. The motorcycle segment, however, has no deployed crash warning system to date. With the active development of next generation crash warning systems based on connected vehicle technologies, this study explored possible interface designs for motorcycle crash warning systems and evaluated their rider acceptance and effectiveness in a connected vehicle context. Four prototype warning interface displays covering three warning mode alternatives (auditory, visual, and haptic) were designed and developed for motorcycles. They were tested on-road with three connected vehicle safety applications - intersection movement assist, forward collision warning, and lane departure warning - which were selected according to the most impactful crash types identified for motorcycles. It showed that a combination of warning modalities was preferred to a single display by 87.2% of participants and combined auditory and haptic displays showed considerable promise for implementation. Auditory display is easily implemented given the adoption rate of in-helmet auditory systems. Its weakness of presenting directional information in this study may be remedied by using simple speech or with the help of haptic design, which performed well at providing such information and was also found to be attractive to riders. The findings revealed both opportunities and challenges of visual displays for motorcycle crash warning systems. More importantly, differences among riders of three major motorcycle types (cruiser, sport, and touring) in terms of riders’ acceptance of a crash warning interface were revealed. Based on the results, recommendations were provided for an appropriate crash warning interface design for motorcycles and riders in a connected vehicle environment.