Now showing items 1-20 of 60

    • Establishing Native Trees on Legacy Surface Mines 

      Burger, James A.; Zipper, Carl E.; Angel, Patrick N.; Hall, Nathan; Skousen, Jeffrey G.; Barton, Christopher D.; Eggerud, Scott (Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative, 2013-11)
      More than one million acres have been surface mined for coal in Appalachia. Today, much of this land is unmanaged, unproductive, and covered with non-native plants. Establishing productive forests on such lands will aid ...
    • Re-establishing American Chestnut on Mined Lands in the Appalachian Coalfields 

      French, Michael; Barton, Christopher D.; McCarthy, Brian; Keiffer, Carolyn; Skousen, Jeffrey G.; Zipper, Carl E.; Angel, Patrick N. (Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative, 2015-06)
      American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was formerly a major component of forests throughout the Appalachian coalfield and beyond. Chestnut’s strong, lightweight wood was naturally rot-resistant, making it a preferred timber ...
    • Managing Invasive Exotic Plant Species on Legacy Mine Lands 

      Adams, Mary Beth; Sanderson, Tyler; Sena, Kenton; Barton, Christopher D.; Agouridis, Carmen T.; Angel, Patrick N.; Zipper, Carl E. (Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative, 2019-02)
      More than 2 million acres have been surface mined in the Appalachians (Zipper et al. 2011; OSMRE). Today, many mining firms are attempting to establish functional forests as a post-mining land use. However, many of the ...
    • Establishing Riparian Woody Vegetation for Constructed Streams Using the Forestry Reclamation Approach 

      Zipper, Carl E.; Krenz, R. J.; Sweeten, S. E.; Agouridis, Carmen T.; Barton, Christopher D.; Angel, Patrick N. (Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative, 2018-03)
      Construction and renovation of streams and riparian corridors on mined lands have become common activities in Appalachia. Surface mining for coal can disturb ephemeral and intermittent streams, and may disturb permanent ...
    • The Forestry Reclamation Approach: An Essential Tool for Controlling Invasive Exotic Plants on Active Mine Sites 

      Zipper, Carl E.; Angel, Patrick N.; Adams, Mary Beth; Sanderson, Tyler; Sena, Kenton; Barton, Christopher D.; Agouridis, Carmen T. (Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative, 2019-05)
      Mining companies use the Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) when reclaiming mined land with the aim of establishing functional forests as a post- mining land use. Invasive exotic plant species (IES) can interfere with ...
    • Re-Establishing Pollinator Habitat on Mined Lands Using the Forestry Reclamation Approach 

      Horn, Tammy; Angel, Patrick N.; Zipper, Carl E.; Ulyshen, Michael; French, Michael; Burger, James A.; Adams, Mary Beth (Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative, 2017-02)
      Pollinators are animals that play an essential role in the reproduction of many plants by transferring genetic material, in the form of pollen, from male to female flower parts. Because pollinator communities are under ...
    • Reforestation to Enhance Appalachian Mined Lands as Habitat for Terrestrial Wildlife 

      Wood, Petra; Larkin, Jeff; Mizel, Jeremy; Zipper, Carl E.; Angel, Patrick (Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative, 2013-11)
      Surface mining is widespread throughout the Appalachian coalfield, a region with extensive forests that are rich in wildlife. Game species for hunting, non-game wildlife species, and other organisms are important contributors ...
    • Selecting Tree Species for Reforestation of Appalachian Mined Lands 

      Davis, Vic; Burger, James A.; Rathfon, Ron; Zipper, Carl E.; Miller, Christopher R. (Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative, 2012-08)
      The Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) is a method for reclaiming coal surface mines to forested post-mining land uses (FR Advisory No. 2, Burger and others 2005). The FRA’s fourth step is to plant native trees for ...
    • Mine Reclamation Practices to Enhance Forest Development Through Natural Succession 

      Groninger, John; Skousen, Jeff; Angel, Patrick; Barton, Christopher; Burger, James; Graves, Don; Zipper, Carl E. (Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative, 2007-07)
      Succession is a term used to describe natural changes in plant community composition over time. In the forested Appalachian region, disturbances from storms, fire, logging, or mining can disrupt or destroy established ...
    • Low Compaction Grading to Enhance Reforestation Success on Coal Surface Mines 

      Sweigard, Richard; Burger, James; Zipper, Carl E.; Skousen, Jeff; Barton, Christopher; Angel, Patrick (Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative, 2007-07)
      This advisory describes final-grading techniques for reclaiming coal-surface mines to forest postmining land uses. Final grading that leaves a loose soil and a rough surface increases survival of planted seedlings and ...
    • Loosening Compacted Soils on Mined Sites  

      Sweigard, Richard; Burger, James; Graves, Don; Zipper, Carl E.; Barton, Christopher; Skousen, Jeff; Angel, Patrick (Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative, 2007-07)
      Because successful surface-coal mining businesses must move earth materials efficiently, mining operations today use large and heavy equipment. Track dozers and haul trucks used for mining can weigh in excess of 100 tons ...
    • Selecting Materials for Mine Soil Construction When Establishing Forests On Appalachian Mine Sites 

      Skousen, Jeff; Zipper, Carl E.; Burger, James; Barton, Christopher; Angel, Patrick (Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative, 2011-07)
      The Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) is a method for reclaiming coal-mined land to forest (FRA Advisory #2, Burger and others 2005). The FRA is based on research, knowledge, and experience of forest soil scientists and ...
    • Tree-Compatible Groundcovers for Reforestation and Erosion Control 

      Burger, Jim; Davis, Vic; Franklin, Jennifer; Zipper, Carl E.; Skousen, Jeff; Barton, Christopher; Angel, Patrick (Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative, 2009-07)
      Productive native forests create economic value for landowners, produce raw materials for wood-based products, and provide benefits such as watershed control, water quality protection, carbon storage, wildlife habitat, and ...
    • The Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative 

      Angel, Patrick; Davis, Vic; Burger, Jim; Graves, Don; Zipper, Carl E. (Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative, 2007-07-18)
      The Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative (ARRI) is a cooperative effort by the States of the Appalachian Region with the Office of Surface Mining to encourage restoration of high quality forests on reclaimed coal ...
    • Planting Hardwood Tree Seedlings on Reclaimed Mine Land in Appalachia 

      Davis, Vic; Franklin, Jennifer; Zipper, Carl E.; Angel, Patrick (Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative, 2010-02)
      The Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) is a method of reclaiming surface coal mines to forested post-mining land use (see Forest Reclamation Advisory No. 2). “Use proper tree planting techniques” is Step 5 of the FRA; ...
    • The Forestry Reclamation Approach 

      Burger, Jim; Graves, Don; Angel, Patrick; Davis, Vic; Zipper, Carl E. (Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative, 2007-07-18)
      The Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) is a method for reclaiming coal-mined land to forest under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA). The FRA is based on knowledge gained from both scientific research ...
    • On-Site Sewage Treatment Alternatives 

      Galbraith, John M.; Zipper, Carl E.; Reneau, Raymond B., 1941- (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2018-03-27)
      Discusses several alternative methods for treatment of wastewater, and their effectiveness.
    • Stabilizing Reclaimed Mines to Support Buildings and Development 

      Zipper, Carl E.; Winter, Steven (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2018-03-27)
      Describes the general concepts and guidelines for mine stabilization that can be employed for developing reclaimed mine areas for building construction in the Virginia coalfield region.
    • Revegetation Species and Practices 

      Skousen, Jeffrey G. (Jeffrey Grant), 1956-; Zipper, Carl E. (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2018-03-26)
      Summarizes procedures for establishing herbaceous vegetation on mined lands. Emphasizes revegetation to control erosion and to establish hayland/pasture as a postmining land use.
    • Recovery of Native Plant Communities After Mining 

      Holl, Karen D.; Zipper, Carl E.; Burger, James A. (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2018-03-20)
      Discusses reclamation practices in coal mined land that encourage recovery of native forested ecosystems.