This destination area focuses broadly on how brains change and adapt over the life course, how they change following traumatic events or diseases, and how social and societal forces are affected by and affect brains and individuals. ABB brings together humanities, social sciences, and neuroscience to analyze adaptive changes across multiple levels of inquiry from molecules to individuals, families, and communities. This destination area has three organizational sub-themes: • Healthy and Unhealthy Brain Development: Characterizing healthy brain development first – including cognition, stress, emotion, and decision-making – allows researchers to better identify and understand unhealthy brain development with wide-ranging complex and interactive effects for people and communities. Virginia Tech has recognized leaders in research on focused brain and behavioral development. • Brain Trauma: Damage occurs to the brain not only due to injury, but also genetics or psychological/emotional causes such as PTSD, abuse, or neglect. Virginia Tech is a recognized leader for research and education to help recognize, respond to, and recover from brain trauma. • Brain Cancer: Affecting more than 200,000 people each year in the U.S. alone, brain cancer is a major health crisis. Virginia Tech has a strong contingent of internationally recognized investigators whose research is informing society on cancer biology, etiology, disease mechanisms, and experimental treatments. [http://provost.vt.edu/destination-areas/da-brain.htm]

Recent Submissions

  • Comparison between Daytime and Nighttime Scenery Focusing on Restorative and Recovery Effect 

    Cheon, SangHyun; Han, Soyoung; Kim, Mintai; Kwon, Yoonku (MDPI, 2019-06-16)
    The overall purpose of this study was to investigate psycho-physiological variations in human bodies by observing visual images of daytime and nighttime scenery to focus on restorative and recovery effects. Unlike previous ...
  • Target-Derived Matricryptins Organize Cerebellar Synapse Formation through _3_1 Integrins 

    Su, Jianmin; Stenbjorn, Renee S.; Gorse, Karen; Su, Kaiwen; Hauser, Kurt F.; Ricard-Blum, Sylvie; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Fox, Michael A. (Cell, 2012)
    Trans-synaptic organizing cues must be passed between synaptic partners for synapses to properly form. Much of our understanding of this process stems from studies at the neuromuscular junction, where target-derived growth ...
  • Social and novel contexts modify hippocampal CA2 representations of space 

    Alexander, Georgia M.; Farris, Shannon; Pirone, Jason R.; Zheng, Chenguang; Colgin, Laura L.; Dudek, Serena M. (Springer Communications, 2016-01-25)
    The hippocampus supports a cognitive map of space and is critical for encoding declarative memory (who, what, when and where). Recent studies have implicated hippocampal subfield CA2 in social and contextual memory but how ...
  • Hippocampal Deletion of BDNF Gene Attenuates Gamma Oscillations in Area CA1 by Up-Regulating 5-HT3 Receptor 

    Huang, Ying; Morozov, Alexei (PLOS, 2011-01-26)
    Background: Pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal area CA3 express high levels of BDNF, but how this BDNF contributes to oscillatory properties of hippocampus is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we examined ...
  • Functional Blockade of Small GTPase RAN Inhibits Glioblastoma Cell Viability 

    Sheng, Kevin L.; Pridham, Kevin J.; Sheng, Zhi; Lamouille, Samy; Varghese, Robin T. (Frontiers, 2019-01-08)
    Glioblastoma, the most common malignant tumor in the brain, lacks effective treatments and is currently incurable. To identify novel drug targets for this deadly cancer, the publicly available results of RNA interference ...
  • X-linked intellectual disability gene CASK regulates postnatal brain growth in a non-cell autonomous manner 

    Srivastava, Sarika; McMillan, Ryan; Willis, Jeffery; Clark, Helen; Chavan, Vrushali; Liang, Chen; Zhang, Haiyan; Hulver, Matthew; Mukherjee, Konark (BMC, 2016-03-31)
    The phenotypic spectrum among girls with heterozygous mutations in the X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) gene CASK (calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase) includes postnatal microcephaly, ponto-cerebellar ...
  • Mathematically Gifted Adolescents Have Deficiencies in Social Valuation and Mentalization 

    Yun, Kyongsik; Chung, Dongil; Jang, Bosun; Kim, Jin Ho; Jeong, Jaeseung (PLOS, 2011-04-04)
    Many mathematically gifted adolescents are characterized as being indolent, underachieving and unsuccessful despite their high cognitive ability. This is often due to difficulties with social and emotional development. ...
  • Human substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area involvement in computing social error signals during the ultimatum game 

    Hétu, Sébastien; Luo, Yi; D’Ardenne, Kimberlee; Lohrenz; Montague, P. Read (Oxford University Press, 2017-08-17)
    As models of shared expectations, social norms play an essential role in our societies. Since our social environment is changing constantly, our internal models of it also need to change. In humans, there is mounting ...
  • Alexithymic Trait and Voluntary Control in Healthy Adults 

    Gu, Xiaosi; Liu, Xun; Guise, Kevin G.; Fossella, John; Wang, Kai; Fan, Jin (PLOS, 2008-11-12)
    Background: Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by deficiency in understanding, processing, or describing emotions. Recent studies have revealed that alexithymia is associated with less activation of the ...
  • Different Gain/Loss Sensitivity and Social Adaptation Ability in Gifted Adolescents during a Public Goods Game 

    Chung, Dongil; Yun, Kyongsik; Kim, Jin Ho; Jang, Bosun; Jeong, Jaeseung (PLOS, 2011)
    Gifted adolescents are considered to have high IQs with advanced mathematical and logical performances, but are often thought to suffer from social isolation or emotional mal-adaptation to the social group. The underlying ...
  • Remote Excitation of Neuronal Circuits Using Low- Intensity, Low-Frequency Ultrasound 

    Tyler, William J; Tufail, Yusuf; Finsterwald, Michael; Tauchmann, Monica L.; Olson, Emily J.; Majestic, Cassondra (PLOS, 2008-10-29)
    Possessing the ability to noninvasively elicit brain circuit activity yields immense experimental and therapeutic power. Most currently employed neurostimulation methods rely on the somewhat invasive use of stimulating ...
  • Policy Adjustment in a Dynamic Economic Game 

    Li, Jian; McClure, Samuel M.; King-Casas, Brooks; Montague, P. Read (PLOS, 2006)
    Making sequential decisions to harvest rewards is a notoriously difficult problem. One difficulty is that the real world is not stationary and the reward expected from a contemplated action may depend in complex ways on ...
  • Alterations in Brain Connectivity Underlying Beta Oscillations in Parkinsonism 

    Moran, Rosalyn; Mallet, Nicolas; Litvak, Vladimir; Dolan, Raymond J.; Magill, Peter J.; Friston, Karl J.; Brown, Peter (PLOS, 2011-08-11)
    Cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits are severely disrupted by the dopamine depletion of Parkinson’s disease (PD), leading to pathologically exaggerated beta oscillations. Abnormal rhythms, found in several circuit ...
  • Ready…Go: Amplitude of the fMRI Signal Encodes Expectation of Cue Arrival Time 

    Cui, Xu; Stetson, Chess; Montague, P. Read; Eagleman, David M. (PLOS, 2009-08-04)
    What happens when the brain awaits a signal of uncertain arrival time, as when a sprinter waits for the starting pistol? And what happens just after the starting pistol fires? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging ...
  • Region- and Cell-Specific Expression of Transmembrane Collagens in Mouse Brain 

    Monavarfeshani, Aboozar; Kill, Courtney N.; Sabbagh, Ubadah; Su, Jianmin; Fox, Michael A. (Frontiers, 2017-08-30)
    Unconventional collagens are nonfribrillar proteins that not only contribute to the structure of extracellular matrices but exhibit unique bio-activities. Although roles for unconventional collagens have been well-established ...
  • The chronometry of risk processing in the human cortex 

    Symmonds, Mkael; Moran, Rosalyn J.; Wright, Nicholas D.; Bossaerts, Peter; Barnes, Gareth; Dolan, Raymond J. (Frontiers, 2013-08-20)
    The neuroscience of human decision-making has focused on localizing brain activity correlating with decision variables and choice, most commonly using functional MRI (fMRI). Poor temporal resolution means these studies are ...
  • A computational approach to “free will” constrained by the games we play 

    Kishida, Kenneth T. (Frontiers, 2012-09-27)
    Human choice is not free—we are bounded by a multitude of biological constraints. Yet, within the various landscapes we face, we do express choice, preference, and varying degrees of so-called willful behavior. Moreover, ...
  • Neuroeconomic measures of social decision-making across the lifespan 

    Zhu, Lusha; Walsh, Daniel; Hsu, Ming (Frontiers, 2012-09-21)
    Social and decision-making deficits are often the first symptoms of a striking number of neurodegenerative disorders associated with aging.These includes not only disorders that directly impact dopamine and basal ganglia, ...
  • Aging into Perceptual Control: A Dynamic Causal Modeling for fMRI Study of Bistable Perception 

    Dowlati, Ehsan; Adams, Sarah E.; Stiles, Alexandra; Moran, Rosalyn J. (Frontiers, 2016-03-31)
    Aging is accompanied by stereotyped changes in functional brain activations, for example a cortical shift in activity patterns from posterior to anterior regions is one hallmark revealed by functional magnetic resonance ...
  • Peak frequency in the theta and alpha bands correlates with human working memory capacity 

    Moran, Rosalyn; Campo, Pablo; Maestu, Fernando; Reilly, Richard B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Strangle, Bryan A. (Frontiers, 2010-11-11)
    Theta oscillations in the local field potential of neural ensembles are considered key mediators of human working memory. Theoretical accounts arising from animal hippocampal recordings propose that the phase of theta ...

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