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This destination area focuses broadly on how brains change and adapt over the life course, how they change following traumatic events or diseases, and how social and societal forces are affected by and affect brains and individuals. ABB brings together humanities, social sciences, and neuroscience to analyze adaptive changes across multiple levels of inquiry from molecules to individuals, families, and communities. This destination area has three organizational sub-themes: • Healthy and Unhealthy Brain Development: Characterizing healthy brain development first – including cognition, stress, emotion, and decision-making – allows researchers to better identify and understand unhealthy brain development with wide-ranging complex and interactive effects for people and communities. Virginia Tech has recognized leaders in research on focused brain and behavioral development. • Brain Trauma: Damage occurs to the brain not only due to injury, but also genetics or psychological/emotional causes such as PTSD, abuse, or neglect. Virginia Tech is a recognized leader for research and education to help recognize, respond to, and recover from brain trauma. • Brain Cancer: Affecting more than 200,000 people each year in the U.S. alone, brain cancer is a major health crisis. Virginia Tech has a strong contingent of internationally recognized investigators whose research is informing society on cancer biology, etiology, disease mechanisms, and experimental treatments. [http://provost.vt.edu/destination-areas/da-brain.htm]

Recent Submissions

  • Predictive therapeutic planning for irreversible electroporation treatment of spontaneous malignant glioma 

    Garcia, Paulo A.; Kos, Bor; Rossmeisl, John H. Jr.; Pavliha, Denis; Miklavčič, Damijan; Davalos, Rafael V. (Wiley, 2017-07-25)
    Purpose: Irreversible electroporation (IRE) has been developed as a promising minimally invasive treatment to ablate spontaneous brain tumors with pulsed electric fields in canine patients. The purpose of the study is to ...
  • Optic Nerve Hypoplasia Is a Pervasive Subcortical Pathology of Visual System in Neonates 

    Liang, Chen; Kerr, Alicia; Qui, Yangfengzhong; Cristofoli, Francesca; Van Esch, Hilde; Fox, Michael A.; Mukherjee, Konark (ARVO, 2017-11)
    PURPOSE. Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is the most common cause of childhood congenital blindness in developed nations, yet the fundamental pathobiology of ONH remains unknown. The objective of this study was to employ a ...
  • Heat transfer model to characterize the focal cooling necessary to suppress spontaneous epileptiform activity 

    Guerra, Reynaldo G.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Garcia, Paul A.; Rubinsky, Boris; Berger, Mitchel (SPIE, 2005-04-14)
    Epilepsy is characterized by paroxysmal transient disturbances of the electrical activity of the brain. Symptoms are manifested as impairment of motor, sensory, or psychic function with or without loss of consciousness or ...
  • Adaptive Brain and Behavior Across the Lifespan 

    Unknown author (Virginia Tech, 2016-05)
    Our aim is to understand adaptation and improve human lives in various contexts. Inequalities and environments in which people live affect their health and behavior — and their success of remaining healthy for a lifetime. ...
  • RNA sequencing and proteomics approaches reveal novel deficits in the cortex of Mecp2-deficient mice, a model for Rett syndrome 

    Pacheco, Natasha L; Heaven, Michael R; Holt, Leanne M; Crossman, David K; Boggio, Kristin J; Shaffer, Scott A; Flint, Daniel L; Olsen, Michelle L (2017-10-24)
    Abstract Background Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the transcriptional regulator MeCP2. Much of our understanding of ...
  • Valuation in major depression is intact and stable in a non-learning environment 

    Chung, Dongil; Kadlec, Kelly; Aimone, Jason A.; McCurry, Katherine; King-Casas, Brooks; Chiu, Pearl H. (Nature, 2017-03-10)
    The clinical diagnosis and symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) have been closely associated with impairments in reward processing. In particular, various studies have shown blunted neural and behavioral responses ...
  • Policy Adjustment in a Dynamic Economic Game 

    Li, Jian; McClure, Samuel M.; King-Casas, Brooks; Montague, P. Read (PLOS, 2006-12)
    Making sequential decisions to harvest rewards is a notoriously difficult problem. One difficulty is that the real world is not stationary and the reward expected from a contemplated action may depend in complex ways on ...
  • Neural computations underlying social risk sensitivity 

    Lauharatanahirun, Nina; Christopoulos, George I.; King-Casas, Brooks (Frontiers, 2012-08-02)
    Under standard models of expected utility, preferences over stochastic events are assumed to be independent of the source of uncertainty. Thus, in decision-making, an agent should exhibit consistent preferences, regardless ...
  • Congruence of BOLD Response across Intertemporal Choice Conditions: Fictive and Real Money Gains and Losses 

    Bickel, Warren K.; Pitcock, Jeffery A.; Yi, Richard; Angtuaco, Edgardo J.C. (Society for Neuroscience, 2009-07-08)
    Intertemporal choice is predicated on the valuation of commodities with respect to delay until their receipt. Subjective value of a future outcome decreases, or is discounted, as a function of that delay (Bickel and Johnson, ...
  • A Competing Neurobehavioral Decision Systems model of SES-related health and behavioral disparities 

    Bickel, W.K.; Moody, L.; Quisenberry, A.J.; Ramey, C.T.; Sheffer, C.E. (Elsevier, 2014-07-06)
    We propose that executive dysfunction is an important component relating to the socio-economic status gradient of select health behaviors. We review and find evidence supporting an SES gradient associated with (1) negative ...
  • Neural Activity Reveals Preferences Without Choices 

    Smith, Alec; Bernheim, B. Douglas; Camerer, Colin; Rangel, Antonio (American Economic Association, 2014-05)
    We investigate the feasibility of inferring the choices people would make (if given the opportunity) based on their neural responses to the pertinent prospects when they are not engaged in actual decision making. The ability ...
  • Dendritic Spikes and Their Influence on Extracellular Calcium Signaling 

    Wiest, Michael C.; Eagleman, David M.; King, Richard D.; Montague, P. Read (American Physiological Society, 2000)
    Extracellular calcium is critical for many neural functions, including neurotransmission, cell adhesion, and neural plasticity. Experiments have shown that normal neural activity is associated with changes in extracellular ...
  • Monetary Favors and Their Influence on Neural Responses and Revealed Preference 

    Harvey, Ann H.; Kirk, Ulrich; Denfield, George H.; Montague, P. Read (Society for Neuroscience, 2010-07-14)
    Favors from a sender to a receiver are known to bias decisions made by the recipient, especially when the decision relates to the sender, a feature of social exchange known as reciprocity. Using an art-viewing paradigm ...
  • Neural responses to sanction threats in two-party economic exchange 

    Li, Jian; Xiao, Erte; Houser, Daniel; Montague, P. Read (NAS, 2009-08-11)
    Sanctions are used ubiquitously to enforce obedience to social norms. However, recent field studies and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that cooperation is sometimes reduced when incentives meant to promote prosocial ...
  • When Things Are Better or Worse than Expected: The Medial Frontal Cortex and the Allocation of Processing Resources 

    Potts, Geoffrey F.; Martin, Laura E.; Burton, Philip; Montague, P. Read (MIT, 2006)
    Access to limited-capacity neural systems of cognitive control must be restricted to the most relevant information. How the brain identifies and selects items for preferential processing is not fully understood. Anatomical ...
  • LTD Induction in Adult Visual Cortex: Role of Stimulus Timing and Inhibition 

    Perrett, Stephen P.; Dudek, Serena M.; Eagleman, David; Montague, P. Read; Friedlander, Michael J. (Society for Neuroscience, 2001-04-01)
    One Hertz stimulation of afferents for 15 min with constant interstimulus intervals (regular stimulation) can induce longterm depression (LTD) of synaptic strength in the neocortex. However, it is unknown whether natural ...
  • Neural signature of fictive learning signals in a sequential investment task 

    Lohrenz, Terry; McCabe, Kevin; Camerer, Colin F.; Montague, P. Read (NAS, 2007-04-13)
    Reinforcement learning models now provide principled guides for a wide range of reward learning experiments in animals and humans. One key learning (error) signal in these models is experiential and reports ongoing temporal ...
  • Predictability Modulates Human Brain Response to Reward 

    Berns, Gregory S.; McClure, Samuel M.; Pagnoni, Guiseppe; Montague, P. Read (Society for Neuroscience, 2001-04-15)
    Certain classes of stimuli, such as food and drugs, are highly effective in activating reward regions. We show in humans that activity in these regions can be modulated by the predictability of the sequenced delivery of ...
  • Functional brain network changes associated with maintenance of cognitive function in multiple sclerosis 

    Helekar, Santosh A.; Shin, Jae C.; Mattson, Brandi J.; Bartley, Krystle; Stosic, Milena; Saldana-King, Toni; Montague, P. Read; Hutton, George J. (Frontiers, 2010-11-22)
    In multiple sclerosis (MS) functional changes in connectivity due to cortical reorganization could lead to cognitive impairment (CI), or reflect a re-adjustment to reduce the clinical effects of widespread tissue damage. ...
  • Neural signatures of strategic types in a two-person bargaining game 

    Bhatt, Meghana A.; Lohrenz, Terry; Camerer, Colin F.; Montague, P. Read (NAS, 2010-09-28)
    The management and manipulation of our own social image in the minds of others requires difficult and poorly understood computations. One computation useful in social image management is strategic deception: our ability ...

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