Determination of Testicular Blood Flow in Camelids Using Vascular Casting and Color Pulsed-Wave Doppler Ultrasonography
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We describe the vasculature of the camelid testis using plastic casting. We also use color pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography to measure testicular blood flow and compare the differences between testicular blood flow in fertile and infertile camelids. The testicular artery originates from the ventral surface of the aorta, gives rise to an epididymal branch, and becomes very tortuous as it approaches the testis. Within the supratesticular arteries, peak systolic velocity (PSV) was higher in fertile males compared to infertile males (𝑃=0.0004). In addition, end diastolic velocity (EDV) within the supratesticular arteries was higher for fertile males when compared to infertile males (𝑃=0.0325). Within the marginal arteries, PSV was also higher in fertile males compared to infertile males (𝑃=0.0104). However, EDV within the marginal arteries was not significantly different between fertile and infertile males (𝑃=0.121). In addition, the resistance index was not significantly different between fertile and infertile males within the supratesticular (𝑃=0.486) and marginal arteries (𝑃=0.144). The significance of this research is that in addition to information obtained from a complete reproductive evaluation, a male camelid's fertility can be determined using testicular blood flow measured by Doppler ultrasonography.