Molecular Mechanism Underlying Persistent Induction of LCN2 by Lipopolysaccharide in Kidney Fibroblasts
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The neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is a critical inflammatory mediator persistently induced during endotoxemia, contributing to tubular damage and kidney failure. The intracellular process responsible for persistent induction of LCN2 by bacterial endotoxin Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is not well understood. Using primary kidney fibroblasts, we observed that LPS-induced LCN2 expression requires a coupled circuit involving an early transient phase of AP-1 path and a late persistent phase of C/EBPδ path, both of which are dependent upon the interleukin 1 receptor associated kinase 1 (IRAK-1). Using immunoprecipitation analysis we observed transient binding of AP-1 to the promoters of both TNFα and C/ebpδ. On the other hand, we only observed persistent binding of C/EBPδ to its own promoter but not on TNFα. Blockage of new protein synthesis using cyclohexamide significantly reduced the expression of C/EBPδ as well as LCN2. By chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, we demonstrated that LPS recruited C/EBPδ to the Lcn2 promoter in WT, but not IRAK-1 deficient fibroblasts. A differential equation-based computational model captured the dynamic circuit leading to the persistent induction of LCN2. In vivo, we observed elevated levels of LCN2 in kidneys harvested from LPS-injected WT mice as compared to IRAK-1 deficient mice. Taken together, this study has identified an integrated intracellular network involved in the persistent induction of LCN2 by LPS.