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Hemostatic nanoparticles increase survival, mitigate neuropathology and alleviate anxiety in a rodent blast trauma model
Hubbard, W. Brad
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Explosions account for 79% of combat related injuries and often lead to polytrauma, a majority of which include blast-induced traumatic brain injuries (bTBI). These injuries lead to internal bleeding in multiple organs and, in the case of bTBI, long term neurological deficits. Currently, there are no treatments for internal bleeding beyond fluid resuscitation and surgery. There is also a dearth of treatments for TBI. We have developed a novel approach using hemostatic nanoparticles that encapsulate an anti-inflammatory, dexamethasone, to stop the bleeding and reduce inflammation after injury. We hypothesize that this will improve not only survival but long term functional outcomes after blast polytrauma. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) hemostatic nanoparticles encapsulating dexamethasone (hDNPs) were fabricated and tested following injury along with appropriate controls. Rats were exposed to a single blast wave using an Advanced Blast Simulator, inducing primary blast lung and bTBI. Survival was elevated in the hDNPs group compared to controls. Elevated anxiety parameters were found in the controls, compared to hDNPs. Histological analysis indicated that apoptosis and blood-brain barrier disruption in the amygdala were significantly increased in the controls compared to the hDNPs and sham groups. Immediate intervention is crucial to mitigate injury mechanisms that contribute to emotional deficits.