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dc.contributor.authorGulia-Nuss, Monika
dc.contributor.authorNuss, Andrew B.
dc.contributor.authorMeyer, Jason M.
dc.contributor.authorSonenshine, Daniel E.
dc.contributor.authorRoe, R. Michael
dc.contributor.authorWaterhouse, Robert M.
dc.contributor.authorSattelle, David B.
dc.contributor.authorde la Fuente, Jose
dc.contributor.authorRibeiro, Jose M.
dc.contributor.authorMegy, Karine
dc.contributor.authorThimmapuram, Jyothi
dc.contributor.authorMiller, Jason R.
dc.contributor.authorWalenz, Brian P.
dc.contributor.authorKoren, Sergey
dc.contributor.authorHostetler, Jessica B.
dc.contributor.authorThiagarajan, Mathangi
dc.contributor.authorJoardar, Vinita S.
dc.contributor.authorHannick, Linda I.
dc.contributor.authorBidwell, Shelby
dc.contributor.authorHammond, Martin P.
dc.contributor.authorYoung, Sarah
dc.contributor.authorZeng, Qiandong
dc.contributor.authorAbrudan, Jenica L.
dc.contributor.authorAlmeida, Francisca C.
dc.contributor.authorAyllon, Nieves
dc.contributor.authorBhide, Ketaki
dc.contributor.authorBissinger, Brooke W.
dc.contributor.authorBonzon-Kulichenko, Elena
dc.contributor.authorBuckingham, Steven D.
dc.contributor.authorCaffrey, Daniel R.
dc.contributor.authorCaimano, Melissa J.
dc.contributor.authorCroset, Vincent
dc.contributor.authorDriscoll, Timothy
dc.contributor.authorGilbert, Don
dc.contributor.authorGillespie, Joseph J.
dc.contributor.authorGiraldo-Calderon, Gloria I.
dc.contributor.authorGrabowski, Jeffrey M.
dc.contributor.authorJiang, David
dc.contributor.authorKhalil, Sayed M. S.
dc.contributor.authorKim, Donghun
dc.contributor.authorKocan, Katherine M.
dc.contributor.authorKoci, Juraj
dc.contributor.authorKuhn, Richard J.
dc.contributor.authorKurtti, Timothy J.
dc.contributor.authorLees, Kristin
dc.contributor.authorLang, Emma G.
dc.contributor.authorKennedy, Ryan C.
dc.contributor.authorKwon, Hyeogsun
dc.contributor.authorPerera, Rushika
dc.contributor.authorQi, Yumin
dc.contributor.authorRadolf, Justin D.
dc.contributor.authorSakamoto, Joyce M.
dc.contributor.authorSanchez-Gracia, Alejandro
dc.contributor.authorSevero, Maiara S.
dc.contributor.authorSilverman, Neal
dc.contributor.authorSimo, Ladislav
dc.contributor.authorTojo, Marta
dc.contributor.authorTornador, Cristian
dc.contributor.authorVan Zee, Janice P.
dc.contributor.authorVazquez, Jesus
dc.contributor.authorVieira, Filipe G.
dc.contributor.authorVillar, Margarita
dc.contributor.authorWespiser, Adam R.
dc.contributor.authorYang, Yunlong
dc.contributor.authorZhu, Jiwei
dc.contributor.authorArensburger, Peter
dc.contributor.authorPietrantonio, Patricia V.
dc.contributor.authorBarker, Stephen C.
dc.contributor.authorShao, Renfu
dc.contributor.authorZdobnov, Evgeny M.
dc.contributor.authorHauser, Frank
dc.contributor.authorGrimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J. P.
dc.contributor.authorPark, Yoonseong
dc.contributor.authorRozas, Julio
dc.contributor.authorBenton, Richard
dc.contributor.authorPedra, Joao H. F.
dc.contributor.authorNelson, David R.
dc.contributor.authorUnger, Maria F.
dc.contributor.authorTubio, Jose M. C.
dc.contributor.authorTu, Zhijian
dc.contributor.authorRobertson, Hugh M.
dc.contributor.authorShumway, Martin
dc.contributor.authorSutton, Granger
dc.contributor.authorWortman, Jennifer R.
dc.contributor.authorLawson, Daniel
dc.contributor.authorWikel, Stephen K.
dc.contributor.authorNene, Vishvanath M.
dc.contributor.authorFraser, Claire M.
dc.contributor.authorCollins, Frank H.
dc.contributor.authorBirren, Bruce
dc.contributor.authorNelson, Karen E.
dc.contributor.authorCaler, Elisabet
dc.contributor.authorHill, Catherine A.
dc.description.abstractTicks transmit more pathogens to humans and animals than any other arthropod. We describe the 2.1 Gbp nuclear genome of the tick, Ixodes scapularis (Say), which vectors pathogens that cause Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis and other diseases. The large genome reflects accumulation of repetitive DNA, new lineages of retro-transposons, and gene architecture patterns resembling ancient metazoans rather than pancrustaceans. Annotation of scaffolds representing similar to 57% of the genome, reveals 20,486 protein-coding genes and expansions of gene families associated with tick-host interactions. We report insights from genome analyses into parasitic processes unique to ticks, including host 'questing', prolonged feeding, cuticle synthesis, blood meal concentration, novel methods of haemoglobin digestion, haem detoxification, vitellogenesis and prolonged off-host survival. We identify proteins associated with the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, an emerging disease, and the encephalitis-causing Langat virus, and a population structure correlated to life-history traits and transmission of the Lyme disease agent.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services (NIAID, NIH, DHHS) [N01-AI30071, HHSN272200900007C, HHSN266200400001C, 5R01GM77117-5]
dc.description.sponsorshipNIH-NIAID [HHSN266200400039C, HHSN272200900039C]
dc.description.sponsorshipAustralian Research Council [DP120100240]
dc.description.sponsorshipMinisterio de Ciencia e Innovacion of Spain [BFU2007-6292, BFU2010-15484, BIO2009-07990, BIO2012-37926]
dc.description.sponsorshipNIH [1R01AI090062, 1R21AI096268, HHSN272200900040C, R01AI017828, R01AI043006]
dc.description.sponsorshipNSF [IOS-0949194]
dc.description.sponsorshipXunta de Galicia of Spain [10PXIB918057PR]
dc.description.sponsorshipEU FP7 ANTIGONE [278976]
dc.description.sponsorshipUSDA-NRI/CREES [2008-35302-18820]
dc.description.sponsorshipTexas AgriLife Research Vector Biology grant
dc.description.sponsorshipEuropean Research Council Starting Independent Researcher Grant [205202]
dc.description.sponsorshipMarie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship [PIOF-GA-2011-303312]
dc.description.sponsorshipSwiss National Science Foundation [31003A-125350, 31003A-143936]
dc.description.sponsorshipNIH-NCATS award [TL1 TR000162]
dc.description.sponsorshipFundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia, Portugal fellowship [SFRH/BD/22360/2005]
dc.description.sponsorshipLundbeck Foundation (Denmark)
dc.description.sponsorshipBroad Genomics Platform
dc.publisherSpringer Nature
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
dc.titleGenomic insights into the Ixodes scapularis tick vector of Lyme diseaseen_US
dc.typeArticle - Refereed
dc.description.notesThis project has been funded in part with federal funds from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services (NIAID, NIH, DHHS) under contract numbers N01-AI30071, HHSN272200900007C, HHSN266200400001C and 5R01GM77117-5. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not represent the official views of the NIH. Additional grants and contracts supporting work described in this manuscript were from the NIH-NIAID (HHSN266200400039C and HHSN272200900039C) to F.H.C., and a subcontract under HHSN272200900039C to C.A.H. and J.M.M., the Australian Research Council Discovery Project (DP120100240) to S.C.B. and R.S., the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion of Spain (BFU2007-6292; BFU2010-15484) to J.R., BIO2009-07990 and BIO2012-37926 to J.V. NIH-1R01AI090062 to Y.P., L.S., and J.K., NIH 1R21AI096268 and NSF IOS-0949194 to R.M.R., the Xunta de Galicia of Spain (10PXIB918057PR) to J.M.C.T. and M.T., BFU2011-23896 and EU FP7 ANTIGONE (278976) to J.F., the USDA-NRI/CREES (2008-35302-18820) and Texas AgriLife Research Vector Biology grant to P.V.P. and European Research Council Starting Independent Researcher Grant (205202) to R.B., J.M.R was supported by the intramural program of the NIAID, R.M.W. by a Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship PIOF-GA-2011-303312, E.M.Z. by Swiss National Science Foundation awards 31003A-125350 and 31003A-143936, J.M.G. by an NIH-NCATS award TL1 TR000162 and NSF Graduate Research Fellowship (DGE 1333468), V.C. by a Boehringer Ingelheim Ph.D. Fellowship, F.G.V. by a Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia, Portugal fellowship (SFRH/BD/22360/2005), C.J.P.G. and F.H. by The Lundbeck Foundation (Denmark), and J.J.G. by NIH awards HHSN272200900040C, R01AI017828 and R01AI043006. Support from the Broad Genomics Platform is gratefully acknowledged.
dc.title.serialNature Communications

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