The ecology of chronic wasting disease in wildlife

dc.contributor.authorEscobar, Luis E.en
dc.contributor.authorPritzkow, Sandraen
dc.contributor.authorWinter, Steven N.en
dc.contributor.authorGrear, Daniel A.en
dc.contributor.authorKirchgessner, Megan S.en
dc.contributor.authorDominguez-Villegas, Ernestoen
dc.contributor.authorMachado, Gustavoen
dc.contributor.authorPeterson, A. Townsenden
dc.contributor.authorSoto, Claudioen
dc.contributor.departmentFish and Wildlife Conservationen
dc.date.accessioned2020-06-12T14:45:29Zen
dc.date.available2020-06-12T14:45:29Zen
dc.date.issued2020-04en
dc.description.abstractPrions are misfolded infectious proteins responsible for a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases termed transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion diseases. Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is the prion disease with the highest spillover potential, affecting at least seven Cervidae (deer) species. The zoonotic potential of CWD is inconclusive and cannot be ruled out. A risk of infection for other domestic and wildlife species is also plausible. Here, we review the current status of the knowledge with respect to CWD ecology in wildlife. Our current understanding of the geographic distribution of CWD lacks spatial and temporal detail, does not consider the biogeography of infectious diseases, and is largely biased by sampling based on hunters' cooperation and funding available for each region. Limitations of the methods used for data collection suggest that the extent and prevalence of CWD in wildlife is underestimated. If the zoonotic potential of CWD is confirmed in the short term, as suggested by recent results obtained in experimental animal models, there will be limited accurate epidemiological data to inform public health. Research gaps in CWD prion ecology include the need to identify specific biological characteristics of potential CWD reservoir species that better explain susceptibility to spillover, landscape and climate configurations that are suitable for CWD transmission, and the magnitude of sampling bias in our current understanding of CWD distribution and risk. Addressing these research gaps will help anticipate novel areas and species where CWD spillover is expected, which will inform control strategies. From an ecological perspective, control strategies could include assessing restoration of natural predators of CWD reservoirs, ultrasensitive CWD detection in biotic and abiotic reservoirs, and deer density and landscape modification to reduce CWD spread and prevalence.en
dc.description.adminPublic domain – authored by a U.S. government employeeen
dc.description.notesL.E.E. was supported by the Virginia Tech College of Natural Resources and the Environment Startup Funds and the Virginia Tech Destination Areas Rural Health Seed Grant #J0788219. C.S. was supported by NIH grant P01AI077774. We thank Manuel Jara for the cladogram of cervids and Sami Livingston for the drawings in Figure 2. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.en
dc.description.sponsorshipVirginia Tech College of Natural Resources and the Environment Startup Funds; Virginia Tech Destination Areas Rural Health Seed Grant [J0788219]; NIHUnited States Department of Health & Human ServicesNational Institutes of Health (NIH) - USA [P01AI077774]en
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdfen
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12568en
dc.identifier.eissn1469-185Xen
dc.identifier.issn1464-7931en
dc.identifier.issue2en
dc.identifier.pmid31750623en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/98832en
dc.identifier.volume95en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.rightsCreative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedicationen
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/en
dc.subjectCervidaeen
dc.subjectChronic Wasting Diseaseen
dc.subjectCWDen
dc.subjectprionsen
dc.subjectreservoirsen
dc.subjectspreaden
dc.subjectwildlifeen
dc.subjectzoonoticen
dc.titleThe ecology of chronic wasting disease in wildlifeen
dc.title.serialBiological Reviewsen
dc.typeArticle - Refereeden
dc.type.dcmitypeTexten
dc.type.dcmitypeStillImageen
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