The preventive systems approach to protected area management: The case of Mt. Kitanglad Range Natural Park, Bukidnon, Philippines

TR Number



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title



This paper discusses two important changes in the paradigm of protected area and watershed management. The first one is on the increasing interest on community-based and locally led institutions whether farmer groups or local government units that form part of a participatory approach for natural resource management. Locally led institutions are deemed to be the key for addressing local issues and problems with some guidance from external agencies. The second change is in the view that protected area and watershed management should not limit its management concerns within their area of jurisdiction, but extend their efforts beyond their territory to link and work with larger communities outside the protected area where serious problems arising from pressures in the park emanate. The relationship of reconciling, complimenting and co-managing the protected area and watersheds through the three management entities and their respective domains is summarized as the "Preventive Systems Approach" or PSA.



Stakeholders, National parks, Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), Deforestation, Indigenous community, Government policy, Local policy, Land use management, Laws and regulations, Sustainable forestry, Park buffer zone, Decentralization, Sustainability, Sustainable agriculture, Watershed management, Local governance, Biodiversity conservation, National integrated protected area systems act (nipas act), Preventative systems approach (psa), Ecosystems approach, Integrated Conservation and Development Projects (ICDPS), Indigenous people's right act (ipra), Protected area management board (pamb), Conservation of priority protected areas project (cppap), Local Government Units (LGUs), Kitanglad range nature park, Participatory learning landscape appraisal (plla), Appropriate technology, Policy innovation, Governance Watershed


Paper presented at the Upland NGO Assistance Committee (UNAC) 7th National Consultative Conference, Laurel, Batangas, November 2000