Transient use of hemolymph for hydraulic wing expansion in cicadas

dc.contributor.authorSalcedo, Mary K.en
dc.contributor.authorEllis, Tyler E.en
dc.contributor.authorSaenz, Angela S.en
dc.contributor.authorLu, Joyceen
dc.contributor.authorWorrell, Terrellen
dc.contributor.authorMadigan, Michael L.en
dc.contributor.authorSocha, John J.en
dc.date.accessioned2023-08-22T13:59:00Zen
dc.date.available2023-08-22T13:59:00Zen
dc.date.issued2023-04en
dc.description.abstractInsect wings must be flexible, light, and strong to allow dynamic behaviors such as flying, mating, and feeding. When winged insects eclose into adults, their wings unfold, actuated hydraulically by hemolymph. Flowing hemolymph in the wing is necessary for functioning and healthy wings, both as the wing forms and as an adult. Because this process recruits the circulatory system, we asked, how much hemolymph is pumped into wings, and what happens to the hemolymph afterwards? Using Brood X cicadas (Magicicada septendecim), we collected 200 cicada nymphs, observing wing transformation over 2 h. Using dissection, weighing, and imaging of wings at set time intervals, we found that within 40 min after emergence, wing pads morphed into adult wings and total wing mass increased to similar to 16% of body mass. Thus, a significant amount of hemolymph is diverted from body to wings to effectuate expansion. After full expansion, in the similar to 80 min after, the mass of the wings decreased precipitously. In fact, the final adult wing is lighter than the initial folded wing pad, a surprising result. These results demonstrate that cicadas not only pump hemolymph into the wings, they then pump it out, producing a strong yet lightweight wing.en
dc.description.notesA special thanks goes to the University of Maryland Cicada Crew and Steve Young, who contributed thoughtful discussion on cicadas, citizen science observations, and nymphs to the experiment. The authors thank the Parks Service of Alexandria for their thoughtful comments on our project during our stay. The authors thank their fellow Virginia Tech Socha Lab mates who joined in the collection process: Joshua Pulliam, Jeff Anderson Jr., Talia Weiss, Noah Goldfarb, and Giovanni Morris. Special thanks goes to Mal Graham for suggesting the wall of insect mesh to allow cicadas to free-climb. We also thank Alison Henry for the helpful discussion. This research was funded through a US National Science Foundation (NSF) fellowship to M.K.S. (NSF PRFB 1812215), and also partially supported by the United States of Agriculture NIFA Fellowship to M.K.S. (Award: 2022-67012-37679) and NSF grant (IOS 1558052) to J.J.S.en
dc.description.sponsorshipUS National Science Foundation (NSF) [NSF PRFB 1812215]; United States of Agriculture NIFA Fellowship [2022-67012-37679]; NSF [IOS 1558052]en
dc.description.versionPublished versionen
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdfen
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-32533-4en
dc.identifier.issn2045-2322en
dc.identifier.issue1en
dc.identifier.other6298en
dc.identifier.pmid37072416en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/116078en
dc.identifier.volume13en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherNature Portfolioen
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 Internationalen
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
dc.subjectimaginal ecdysisen
dc.subjectschistocerca-gregariaen
dc.subjectperiodical cicadasen
dc.subjectcirculatory organsen
dc.subjectdesert locusten
dc.subjectphysiologyen
dc.subjecteclosionen
dc.titleTransient use of hemolymph for hydraulic wing expansion in cicadasen
dc.title.serialScientific Reportsen
dc.typeArticle - Refereeden
dc.type.dcmitypeTexten
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