Automated Urban Planning for Reimagining City Configuration via Adversarial Learning: Quantification, Generation, and Evaluation

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Urban planning refers to the efforts of designing land-use configurations given a region. However, there is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process for designing effective configurations, which motivates us to ask: can AI accelerate the urban planning process, so that human planners only adjust generated configurations for specific needs? The recent advance of deep generative models inspires us to automate urban planning from an adversarial learning perspective. However, three major challenges arise: 1) how to define a quantitative land-use configuration? 2) how to automate configuration planning? 3) how to evaluate the quality of a generated configuration? In this paper, we systematically address the three challenges. Specifically, 1) We define a land-use configuration as a longitude-latitude-channel tensor. 2) We formulate the automated urban planning problem into a task of deep generative learning. The objective is to generate a configuration tensor given the surrounding contexts of a target region. In particular, we first construct spatial graphs using geographic and human mobility data to learn graph representations. We then combine each target area and its surrounding context representations as a tuple, and categorize all tuples into positive (well-planned areas) and negative samples (poorly-planned areas). Next, we develop an adversarial learning framework, in which a generator takes the surrounding context representations as input to generate a land-use configuration, and a discriminator learns to distinguish between positive and negative samples. 3) We provide quantitative evaluation metrics and conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework.