TrunkDiseaselD.org: A molecular database for fast and accurate identification of fungi commonly isolated from grapevine wood
The grapevine trunk-disease complex limits vineyard longevity in all major grape-growing regions. Although trunk diseases have been distinguished based on etiologies (e.g., Botryosphaeria-, Eutypa-, and Phomopsis dieback, Esca) and causal agents, mixed infections of trunk pathogens and other wood colonizing fungi are frequent in grapevines. These diverse fungal communities in grapevine span four classes in the Pezizomycotina (Ascomycota) and 10 genera in the Hymenochaetales (Basidiomycota). Traditional identification based on morphology is largely untenable because of overlap in colony characteristics or spore dimensions, or lack of sporulation in culture. When based on DNA sequencing, searches of uncurated, public molecular databases can lead to misidentifications. The new "molecular database TrunkDiseaselD.org is populated with accurate rDNA ITS sequences from 250 + isolates (pathogens and saprobes) and secondary DNA barcodes for delineating closely related species. Currently, no such comprehensive database exists for grapevine wood-colonizing fungi. In addition to ITS and secondary barcode sequences, this database provides a scientific reference, origin, and ecological status for each isolate, to aid diagnosticians in communicating results and recommendations to growers. Outreach through the National Plant Diagnostic Network and the US Department of Agriculture's Identification Technology Program will connect diagnosticians to this new database for grape. Published by Elsevier Ltd.