Inclusive Language for Farmers’ Markets

TR Number



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Virginia Tech


As of 2021, 38.3 million people lived in food-insecure households in the United States (USDA, 2021c). Nutrition-related health inequities may be exacerbated by limited consumer access to nutrient-dense foods (Ver Ploeg, M., et. al., 2009). Farmers’ markets (FMs) give consumers direct access to locally-grown produce, as well as meats, eggs, and dairy products directly to consumers (Wetherill, M. S., & Gray, K. A. 2015). However, farmers’ markets are not utilized equally by all demographic groups. When markets use electronic benefits transfer (EBT) for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) benefits, and the Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program, increased marketing targeting low-income and minority consumers can connect these populations to affordable produce. (Wetherill, M. S., & Gray, K. A. 2015). There are limited research studies involving equitable communications through farmers’ markets, particularly in Virginia. Through this project, a farmers’ market communication guide for SNAP-eligible audiences was created to help facilitate farmers’ market managers and/or other farmers’ market outreach coordinators in developing inclusive messages for SNAP-eligible populations through communications, advertisements, and other outreach strategies.