Genomic characterization of NDM-1 and 5, and OXA-1 81 carbapenemases in uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia


Urinary tract infections (UTIs) associated with Escherichia coli are a growing threat with an increase in the prevalence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains, particularly beta-lactamase producers, occurring globally. We investigated the presence of carbapenem-resistant uropathogenic E. coli clones in community-acquired UTIs in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to identify the virulence and resistance structures of the resistant clones and relate the isolates to those circulating globally. A combination of comparative genomics and phenotypic approaches were used to characterize ten MDR-uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates recovered from UTI patients in Riyadh between November 2014 and January 2015. We report the presence of NDM-1 and 5, and OXA-181 in carbapenem-resistant UPEC strains from Riyadh, KSA. Single nucleotide polymorphism analyses demonstrated that these ten isolates fell into four phylogenetically distinct clades within the UPEC phylogeny. Comparative genomic analyses indicate that these diverse clones could be distinguished according to their multilocus sequencing type (MLST), serology, and virulence and antimicrobial gene architectures. These clones include the b/aNDm-i carrying isolates of the globally predominant MDR ST131 and ST69 types, previously identified as one of the most common UPEC strains in KSA. This is in addition to clones of ST23Cplx (ST410) and ST448Cplx (ST448) that have likely evolved from common intestinal strains, carrying copies of beta-lactamase genes including bla(NDM-5), bla(CTX-m-15), bla(TEM-1), bla(CMY-42), bla(OXA-1) and bla(OXA-181). These data have identified an emerging public health concern and highlight the need to use comprehensive approaches to detect the structure of MDR E. coli populations associated with community-acquired UTIs in KSA.