Relaxor behavior and electrothermal properties of Sn- and Nb-modified (Ba,Ca)TiO3 Pb-free ferroelectric


Relaxor ferroelectrics have drawn attention for possible applications in solid-state cooling and thermal energy harvesting, owing to their electrothermal energy conversion properties. Here, we have synthesized and characterized the structure-property correlations of a new Sn- and Nb-doped (Ba,Ca)TiO3 relaxor ferroelectric with large pyroelectric and electrocaloric effects over a broad temperature range. We observed two peaks for the temperature-dependent pyroelectric coefficient: (i) -(partial derivative P/partial derivative T) similar to 563 mu C/(m(2) K) at T similar to 270 K and (ii) -(partial derivative P/partial derivative T) similar to 1021 mu C/(m(2) K) at T similar to 320 K. In addition, a broad peak for electrocaloric temperature change is observed near 320 K with a relative cooling power of similar to 17 J/kg. These properties could be correlated to structural changes observed using X-ray diffraction at two different temperature ranges in the material. Analysis of high-energy X-ray scattering and specific heat capacity data revealed a transition from the cubic to tetragonal phase near T-m similar to 320 K, whereas an additional increase in the tetragonality (c/a) of the polar phase is observed below T-s similar to 270 K.



ferroelectric, electrical properties, X-ray diffraction