Intra- and inter-annual variability in metabolism in an oligotrophic lake

dc.contributor.authorRichardson, David C.en
dc.contributor.authorCarey, Cayelan C.en
dc.contributor.authorBruesewitz, Denise A.en
dc.contributor.authorWeathers, Kathleen C.en
dc.contributor.departmentBiological Sciencesen
dc.description.abstractLakes are sentinels of change in the landscapes in which they are located. Changes in lake function are reflected in whole-system metabolism, which integrates ecosystem processes across spatial and temporal scales. Recent improvements in high-frequency open-water metabolism modeling techniques have enabled estimation of rates of gross primary production (GPP), respiration (R), and net ecosystem production (NEP) at high temporal resolution. However, few studies have examined metabolic rates over daily to multi-year temporal scales, especially in oligotrophic ecosystems. Here, we modified a metabolism modeling technique to reveal substantial intra- and inter-annual variability in metabolic rates in Lake Sunapee, a temperate, oligotrophic lake in New Hampshire, USA. Annual GPP and R increased each summer, paralleling increases in littoral, but not pelagic, total phosphorus concentrations. Storms temporarily decoupled GPP and R, resulting in greater decreases in GPP than R. Daily rates of GPP and R were positively correlated on warm days that had stable water columns, and metabolism model fits were best on warm, sunny days, indicating the importance of lake physics when evaluating metabolic rates. These metabolism data span a range of temporal scales and together suggest that Lake Sunapee may be moving toward mesotrophy. We suggest that functional, integrative metrics, such as metabolic rates, are useful indicators and sentinels of ecosystem change. We also highlight the challenges and opportunities of using high-frequency measurements to elucidate the drivers and consequences of intra- and inter-annual variability in metabolic rates, especially in oligotrophic lakes.en
dc.description.notesWe thank the staff, Board of Trustees, and members of the Lake Sunapee Protective Association (LSPA), especially June and Peter Fichter, Robert Wood, and John Merriman, for their efforts in designing, building, deploying, and maintaining the LSPA buoy; for providing data for this project, including lake bathymetry; and for many hours of discussion about Lake Sunapee. This research was supported, in part, by the LSPA and the Frey Foundation, a Colby, Bates, and Bowdoin Mellon Faculty Mentoring Grant, the Virginia Tech Department of Biological Sciences, the SUNY New Paltz Biology Department, the Virginia Tech Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science, and the Global Lakes Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON). We thank Amanda Lindsey and Bethel Steele for preparing Fig. 1 and, with Holly Ewing, for additional land use/land cover analyses; Ian Jones for discussions about physical limnological processes; Paul Hanson, Chris Solomon, Kathy Cottingham, and Chris McBride for discussions about metabolism; and Ryan Batt for statistical assistance. We thank two anonymous reviewers for suggestions that greatly improved earlier versions of this manuscript.en
dc.description.sponsorshipLSPA; Frey Foundation; Colby, Bates, and Bowdoin Mellon Faculty Mentoring Grant; Virginia Tech Department of Biological Sciences; SUNY New Paltz Biology Department; Virginia Tech Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science; Global Lakes Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON)en
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 Internationalen
dc.subjectGross primary productivity (GPP)en
dc.subjectNet ecosystem production (NEP)en
dc.subjectRespiration (R)en
dc.subjectTemporal variabilityen
dc.titleIntra- and inter-annual variability in metabolism in an oligotrophic lakeen
dc.title.serialAquatic Sciencesen
dc.typeArticle - Refereeden


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