Reducing forest emissions in Southeast Asia: A review of drivers of land-use change and how payments for environmental services (PES) schemes can affect them

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Bogor, Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)


Southeast Asia witnesses high rates of deforestation and forest degradation. Large-scale deforestation for agriculture (notably oil palm) is driven by international market demand. Small-scale deforestation is partly driven by: market opportunities for typical smallholder crops like rubber; land races to gain or secure property rights; and in marginalised, remote areas of the countries also by poverty and population growth. Forest degradation is primarily a consequence of logging activities, especially illegal logging, driven by high international demand for timber. Logging activities are concentrated in Papua New Guinea, but also occur in Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar and Cambodia.



Deforestation, Cash crops, Market demand, Payments for environmental services, Forest management, Agriculture, Land tenure, Land use management, Poverty, Forests, Government, PES, Forest degradation, Illegal logging, Southeast asia, Redd, Forest governance, Land use change, Palm oil, Property rights, Ecosystem Farm/Enterprise Scale Governance


Working Paper No. 41