Emigration to South Africa's mines

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The American Economic Association


This article examines temporary labor migration from Malawi, Botswana, Mozambique, Lesotho, and South Africa to the mines of South Africa. International migration to these South African mines has implications both in the short and long term for both the home countries and for South Africa. The author finds that emigration reduces domestic crop production in the short run, but promotes crop productivity and cattle accumulation through reinvestment of mine earnings in the long run. The conflicting interests of the mines and the sending countries' employers has resulted in new government policies, including forced labor, quotas for emigration, and compulsory population relocation.


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Rural development, National planning, Income generation, Ethnicity/race, Economic analyses, Economic policy, Deregulation and liberalization, Government policy, Vulnerability and risk, Income diversification, Community development, Local governance, International migration, Rural-rural migration, White farm areas, Mozambique, Malawi, Botswana, Lesotho, South africa, Labor migration, Forced labor, Emigration quotas, Farm/Enterprise Scale Governance


The American Economic Review 77(3): 313-330