Effects of Subauroral Polarization Streams on the Upper Thermospheric Winds During Non-Storm Time

dc.contributor.authorZou, Yingen
dc.contributor.authorLyons, Larry R.en
dc.contributor.authorShi, Xuelingen
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Jiangen
dc.contributor.authorWu, Qianen
dc.contributor.authorConde, Marken
dc.contributor.authorShepherd, Simon G.en
dc.contributor.authorMende, Stephenen
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Yongliangen
dc.contributor.authorCoster, Anteaen
dc.description.abstractIntense sunward (westward) plasma flows, named Subauroral Polarization Stream (SAPS), have been known to occur equatorward of the electron auroras for decades, yet their effect on the upper thermosphere has not been well understood. On the one hand, the large velocity of SAPS results in large momentum exchange upon each ion-neutral collision. On the other hand, the low plasma density associated with SAPS implies a low ion-neutral collision frequency. We investigate the SAPS effect during non-storm time by utilizing a Scanning Doppler Imager (SDI) for monitoring the upper thermosphere, SuperDARN radars for SAPS, all-sky imagers and DMSP Spectrographic Imager for the auroral oval, and GPS receivers for the total electron content. Our observations suggest that SAPS at times drives substantial (>50 m/s) westward winds at subauroral latitudes in the dusk-midnight sector, but not always. The occurrence of the westward winds varies with AE index, plasma content in the trough, and local time. The latitudinally averaged wind speed varies from 60 to 160 m/s, and is statistically 21% of the plasma. These westward winds also shift to lower latitude with increasing AE and increasing MLT. We do not observe SAPS driving poleward wind surges, neutral temperature enhancements, or acoustic-gravity waves, likely due to the somewhat weak forcing of SAPS during the non-storm time.en
dc.description.notesThis work was supported by NSF grants AGS-1952926 and AGS-2120503. SDI data are available from https://sdi_server.gi.alaska.edu/sdi_web_plots/sdi_arc.asp.XS acknowledges the support of NSF through awards AGS-1341918 and AGS-1935110. LL and JL are supported by Air Force grant AFOSR FA9559-16-1-0364, NSF grant AGS-2055192, and NASA grants 80NSSC20K1314, 80NSSC20K1316, 80NSSC21K1407, and 80NSSC22K0751. QW is supported by the National Science Foundation Grant AGS-2120511, NASA grants NNX17AG69G, 80NSSC20K0199, and 80NAAC21K0014 P00001. SuperD-ARN is a collection of radars funded by national scientific funding agencies and data are available through http://vt.superdarn.org/.Funding for operation of the CVW SuperDARN radar is provided by NSF grants AGS-1341925 and AGS-1934997. The THEMIS mission is supported by NASA contract NAS502099 and NSF grant AGS-1004736 and data are available http://themis.ssl.berkeley.edu/index.shtml.en
dc.description.sponsorshipNSF [AGS-1004736, AGS-1952926, AGS-2120503, AGS-1341918, AGS-1935110, AGS-2055192, AGS-1341925, AGS-1934997]; Air Force grant [AFOSR FA9559-16-1-0364]; NASA [NAS502099, 80NSSC20K1314, 80NSSC20K1316, 80NSSC21K1407, 80NSSC22K0751, NNX17AG69G, 80NSSC20K0199, 80NAAC21K0014 P00001]; National Science Foundation [AGS-2120511]en
dc.description.versionPublished versionen
dc.publisherAmerican Geophysical Unionen
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 Internationalen
dc.subjectupper thermosphereen
dc.subjectneutral winden
dc.subjection-neutral couplingen
dc.titleEffects of Subauroral Polarization Streams on the Upper Thermospheric Winds During Non-Storm Timeen
dc.title.serialJournal of Geophysical Research-Space Physicsen
dc.typeArticle - Refereeden


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