Towards underwater additive manufacturing via additive friction stir deposition

dc.contributor.authorGriffiths, R. Joeyen
dc.contributor.authorGotawala, Nikhilen
dc.contributor.authorHahn, Greg D.en
dc.contributor.authorGarcia, Daviden
dc.contributor.authorYu, Hang Z.en
dc.description.abstractGiven the challenges in feed material supply and quality control, metal additive manufacturing has rarely been implemented in austere environments, especially underwater. This paper explores the underwater operation potential of an emerging solid-state additive technology: additive friction stir deposition, wherein material feeding and bonding are enabled by mechanical forces with minimal influences from water. It is demonstrated that additive friction stir deposition of 304 stainless steel can be successfully performed with the print head and substrate immersed in water. High temperature is reached in the deposition zone (>60% melting temperature); the material deposition behavior is similar to that in typical open-air operation. The as-deposited material is fully-dense, having fewer annealing twins and a substantially smaller grain size than the feed material (4.98 lm vs. 31.44 lm). Such microstructural changes stem from dynamic recrystallization caused by the large strain and high temperature introduced during deposition. In addition to grain refinement, small equiaxed dispersoids (-2-3 lm or less) are formed and evenly distributed in the austenite steel matrix. Rich in Cr, Mn, and O, these particles likely result from the reaction between the elements in stainless steel and water at elevated temperatures. (c) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
dc.description.notesThe authors would like to thank Dr. Mackenzie Perry from NAVSEA as well as Hannah Glaser, Jake Yoder, and Ryan Gottwald from Virginia Tech for helpful discussions. This work was performed in part at the Nanoscale Characterization and Fabrication Laboratory, which is supported by the Virginia Tech National Center for Earth and Environmental Nanotechnology Infrastructure (NanoEarth), a member of the National Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure (NNCI), supported by NSF (ECCS 1542100 and ECCS 2025151). Part of the manuscript was prepared by LLNL (by the first author Griffiths) under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.en
dc.description.sponsorshipVirginia Tech National Center for Earth and Environmental Nanotechnology Infrastructure (NanoEarth), a member of the National Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure (NNCI) - NSF [ECCS 1542100, ECCS 2025151]; [DE-AC52-07NA27344]en
dc.description.versionPublished versionen
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationalen
dc.subjectSolid-state additive manufacturingen
dc.subjectAdditive friction stir depositionen
dc.subjectStainless steelen
dc.subjectOxide formationen
dc.subjectDynamic recrystallizationen
dc.titleTowards underwater additive manufacturing via additive friction stir depositionen
dc.title.serialMaterials & Designen
dc.typeArticle - Refereeden


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