Penetration and mixing of heated discharges into waterways
This report contains the results of a series of related studies of thermal discharges into waterways and the resulting mixing zones. The first investigation involved the physical situation of a single, isolated horizontal jet discharge below the surface of a deep, moving channel. The results of laboratory experiments, approximate analysis and direct numerical solutions are reported for this physical situation. The second investigation considered the configuration of a tangential jet discharge along one bank of a shallow, moving channel. As with the first configuration, results are reported for laboratory experiments, approximate analysis and numerical solutions. In addition, limited comparisons between the predictions of the approximate analysis and some field measurements are provided. The third and final investigation was a comparative study of the effects of using three more types of injector geometries for thermal discharges-a multi-port diffuser, a single jet on the surface that is discharging perpendicular to the main channel flow, and a single jet resting on the channel bottom and also discharging perpendicular to the main flow. For these geometries, comparative data are provided on recirculation zones, hot spots, and surface temperature distributions.