Biomolecules Triggering Altered Food Intake during Pathogenic Challenge in Chicks
Food intake is regulated by several complicated synergistic mechanisms that are affected by a variety of internal and ex-ternal influences. Some of these factors include those that are released from pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses, and most of these factors are associated with suppression of the chick's food intake. Although chicks are well-known to decrease their food intake when they experience a pathogenic challenge, the mechanisms that mediate this type of satiety are poorly understood. One of the goals of our research group has been to better understand these mechanisms in chicks. We recently provided evidence that pathogen-associated molecular patterns, which are recognized by pattern-recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors, likely contribute to satiety in chicks that are experiencing a pathogenic challenge. Additionally, we identified several inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-like cytokine 1A, prostaglandins, and nitric oxide, that likely contribute to satiety during a pathogenic challenge. This review summarizes the current knowl-edge on pathogen-induced satiety in chicks mainly accumulated through our recent research. The research will give good information to improve the loss of production during infection in poultry production in the future.