Measurement report: Variability in the composition of biogenic volatile organic compounds in a Southeastern US forest and their role in atmospheric reactivity

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Despite the significant contribution of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) to organic aerosol formation and ozone production and loss, there are few longterm, year-round, ongoing measurements of their volume mixing ratios and quantification of their impacts on atmospheric reactivity. To address this gap, we present 1 year of hourly measurements of chemically resolved BVOCs between 15 September 2019 and 15 September 2020, collected at a research tower in Central Virginia in a mixed forest representative of ecosystems in the Southeastern US. Mixing ratios of isoprene, isoprene oxidation products, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes are described and examined for their impact on the hydroxy radical (OH), ozone, and nitrate reactivity. Mixing ratios of isoprene range from negligible in the winter to typical summertime 24 h averages of 4-6 ppb, while monoterpenes have more stable mixing ratios in the range of tenths of a part per billion up to similar to 2 ppb year-round. Sesquiterpenes are typically observed at mixing ratios of < 10 ppt, but this represents a lower bound in their abundance. In the growing season, isoprene dominates OH reactivity but is less important for ozone and nitrate reactivity. Monoterpenes are the most important BVOCs for ozone and nitrate reactivity throughout the year and for OH reactivity outside of the growing season. To better understand the impact of this compound class on OH, ozone, and nitrate reactivity, the role of individual monoterpenes is examined. Despite the dominant contribution of alpha-pinene to total monoterpene mass, the average reaction rate of the monoterpene mixture with atmospheric oxidants is between 25% and 30% faster than alpha-pinene due to the contribution of more reactive but less abundant compounds. A majority of reactivity comes from alpha-pinene and limonene (the most significant low-mixing-ratio, high-reactivity isomer), highlighting the importance of both mixing ratio and structure in assessing atmospheric impacts of emissions.