Do Infield Softball Masks Effectively Reduce Facial Fracture Risk?

dc.contributor.authorMorris, Tyler P.en
dc.contributor.authorGellner, Ryan A.en
dc.contributor.authorRowson, Stevenen
dc.contributor.departmentBiomedical Engineering and Mechanicsen
dc.date.accessioned2019-08-30T13:47:05Zen
dc.date.available2019-08-30T13:47:05Zen
dc.date.issued2019-02en
dc.description.abstractInfield softball masks are intended to reduce facial fracture risk, but are rarely worn. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of infield masks' ability to attenuate facial fracture risk over a range of designs and materials. To simulate batted ball impacts, a customized pitching machine was used to propel softballs at 24.6 +/- 0.51m/s. The balls impacted locations centered over the maxilla and zygoma bones of a FOCUS headform. The FOCUS headform was attached to a 50th percentile Hybrid III neck and secured to a slider table. Facial fracture risk of each facial bone was compared between masks and impact locations using peak resultant forces. Analysis of these data showed that the mask material and the distance between the mask and the impacted facial bone were key factors in determining a mask's performance. The effectiveness of masks varied. It was found that a metal mask with a separation distance 35mm away from the maxilla and 25mm away from the zygoma best reduced facial fracture risk for these test configurations. Plastic masks performed worse because they excessively deformed allowing ball contact with the face. This study assesses various mask designs for their ability to reduce facial fracture and suggests design recommendations based on the impact configurations tested.en
dc.description.notesThe authors would like to thank Craig McNally and Drew Richard for their help in constructing the projectile system and the Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science at Virginia Tech for their support.en
dc.description.sponsorshipInstitute for Critical Technology and Applied Science at Virginia Techen
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdfen
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1007/s10439-018-02144-6en
dc.identifier.eissn1573-9686en
dc.identifier.issn0090-6964en
dc.identifier.issue2en
dc.identifier.pmid30362083en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/93319en
dc.identifier.volume47en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 Internationalen
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
dc.subjectHead impactsen
dc.subjectBall impacten
dc.subjectInjuryen
dc.subjectBiomechanicsen
dc.subjectZygomaen
dc.subjectMaxillaen
dc.subjectOrbitalen
dc.titleDo Infield Softball Masks Effectively Reduce Facial Fracture Risk?en
dc.title.serialAnnals of Biomedical Engineeringen
dc.typeArticle - Refereeden
dc.type.dcmitypeTexten
dc.type.dcmitypeStillImageen
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