Frequency-wave number array processing
Most array signal processing systems use delay-and-sum beamforming to estimate source bearings. This paper demonstrates the close relationship between beamforming and frequency-wavenumber spectrum analysis. The latter approach has computational advantages over beamforming when the noise is spatially correlated. The wavenumber approach is used to derive the array response of a general linear or planar array to plane wave signals. The statistical properties of the maximum-likelihood estimators of source bearing and amplitude are presented for an array with many elements. Optimal array design is also discussed.