SANREM year 3 annual research activity report: Phillipines no-till planter
In year three, the primary objective was to develop an animal-drawn no-till planter. Two (2) planter prototypes were made. In the first prototype, the draft force and the down force requirements were determined. With an operating draft force of 40 to 70 kg, a starting force of 70 to 90 kg, and running at 1 m/s, it was determined that having two rows in a single pass was theoretically possible and a small farm engine or a small motor cycle engine could be used to power the equipment. However, since the first prototype was not stable due to the high location of center of gravity, a second prototype was made to address the issue. In both prototypes, a seeder mechanism and a fertilizer dispenser were attached. Both were functioning, but further study on the placement of the seeds and fertilizer was recommended. The second prototype used a weight at the rear wheel to provide the down force requirements and at the same time acted as a flywheel to store energy when it was moving. With this, the operating pulling force could go as low as 20 kg depending on the type and condition of the soil. Toothed coulter was found to be more efficient than plain coulter in cutting residues, but further analysis and testing would be needed to determine the geometry and number of teeth that would result in an optimum performance. Using an inverted-T opener, breaking of the soil was sufficient at a depth of 50 ' 75 mm. Again, further testing on the geometry and size of the opener was recommended to determine soil breaking performance and contribution to the downward force. The frame of the animal-drawn planter was also to be simplified to reduce equipment cost. Testing on different soil moisture and residue condition was also recommended. Two practical systems of planting were proposed. In the first system, herbicides were to be sprayed on a 40 cm strip of living cover then the planter was to be used. In the second system, the planter was to be used on the living cover followed by herbicide spraying.