Electronic Nose Analysis of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Volatile Differences during Cold Soak and Postfermentation
Cold soak is a prefermentation maceration process at cold temperatures, traditionally used to enhance red wine color. This study monitored changes in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon volatiles using a commercial conducting polymer electronic nose (ENose) during a five-day cold soak and postfermentation. Principal component analysis (PCA) of juice volatiles detected by the ENose during cold soak showed PCI accounted for 95.7% of the variation. Various volatile associations were made with specific ENose sensors. In comparison, PCA of must chemistries had 52.4% of the variation accounted for by PCI. The PCA of wine volatiles detected by GC-MS showed PCI accounted for 97.1% of the variation between control and cold soak treatment, where control wine volatiles were associated with several ethyl esters, while cold soak wine volatiles were associated with diethyl succinate, isovaleric acid, benzyl alcohol, 3-methyl butanol, cis-3-hexenol, gamma-nonalactone, benzaldehyde, 2-methyl propanol, phenethyl acetate, 1-octanol, beta-damascenone, terpinene-4-ol, gamma-butyrolactone, ethyl acetate, hexanoic acid, citronellol, phenethyl alcohol, and n-butanol. Comparatively, PCI accounted for 100% of the total variance when using the ENose to measure volatile composition. Sensory evaluation did not demonstrate significant differences in aroma between control and cold soak wines. This study demonstrates differences in volatile chemistry between control and cold soak wines, as well as the ability to use a conducting polymer ENose as a simple tool for analysis of volatiles.