Foursquare antenna radiating element
A foursquare dual polarized moderately wide bandwidth antenna radiating element is provided which, due to its small size and low frequency response, is well suited to array applications. The foursquare element comprises a printed metalization on a low-loss substrate suspended over a ground plane reflector. Dual linear (i.e., horizontal and vertical), as well as circular and elliptical polarizations of any orientation may be produced with the inventive foursquare element. Further, an array of such elements can be modulated to produce a highly directive beam which can be scanned by adjusting the relative phase of the elements. Operation of the array is enhanced because the individual foursquare elements are small as compared to conventional array element having comparable frequency response. The small size allows for closer spacing of the individual elements which facilitates scanning. Bandwidths of 1.5:1 or better may be obtained with a feed point impedance of 50 Ohms. Good performance is obtained with the foursquare element having a size of 0.36 .lambda.. Also the foursquare element impedance degrades gradually.