Development and the upland resource base: economic and policy context, and lessons from a Philippine watershed

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Manila: National Economic and Development Authority

This paper examines the complex, non-linear relationships between economic growth and environmental degradation that are apparent in the variety of experiences in the recent history of many tropical Asian economies. Numerous factors influence the growth-environment interactions, including the composition of production and consumption, new techniques and environmental policies, security of natural resource property rights, and pollution regulation and liability. Furthermore, environmental and economic policies are not distinct; an economic policy on resource allocation is also inherently an environmental policy. The current government trend of decentralizing is increasingly placing the burden of environmental management and policy design on local governments. This is an especially pressing responsibility for communities in Asias uplands, where sustainable natural resource management is urgently needed to reverse the escalating environmental damage resulting from agricultural expansion and intensification.

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Economic growth, Deforestation, Sustainable development, Economic policy, Environmental impacts, Government policy, Soil, Markets, Economic impacts, Decentralization, Natural resource management, Agriculture, Property rights, Upland agriculture, Environmental degradation, The Philippines, Environmental policy, Agricultural expansion, Agricultural intensification, Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), Structural changes, Import substitution, Food policy, Marginal land, Institutional development, Policy design, Natural resources and environment, Environmental management, Economy-environment linkage, Watershed
Philippine Journal of Development 29(1): 127-150