Level 2 Automated Driving Systems: Market Inventory and Development of a Reference Guide


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National Surface Transportation Safety Center for Excellence


This study was a comprehensive research initiative focused on original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) with significant market shares of Level 2 (L2) automation features in model year 2022 and beyond vehicles. The primary goal of this research was to analyze and categorize operating constraints and human-machine interface (HMI) implementations associated with L2 advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), emphasizing complex functions and interactivity. The research also prioritized understanding the nuances in implementation across different OEMs, particularly within features like adaptive cruise control and lane-keeping technologies. This assessment focused on identifying and prioritizing OEMs with significant market shares and on-road presence of L2 automation features, streamlining the scope to vehicles with immediate impact. L2 ADAS features were emphasized, particularly adaptive cruise control and lane-keeping technologies, to understand their operational complexity and nuanced HMI components. HMI interactions were categorized across sensory modalities—visual, auditory, and haptic—encompassing all forms of feedback. Describing L2 ADAS features and their communication through HMIs was a key component, alongside creating an OEM matrix outlining feature implementations and conducting cross-OEM comparisons. The matrix is a living documented resource, with the intention that it will be continuously updated with new information, serving as a comprehensive reference for L2 automation features and HMIs. Lessons learned underscore the need for deeper exploration given the variance in OEM approaches and potential pandemic-related supply chain impacts at the time of the initial data collection phase. This research initiative aims to illuminate the landscape of L2 automation features and their intricate HMI interactions, ultimately contributing to a better understanding of these technologies for both internal and external stakeholders.



automated driving, SAE Level 2, ADAS, advanced driver assistance systems, human-machine interface