Browsing College of Liberal Arts and Human Sciences (CLAHS) by Issue Date
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- Who Needs Behavioral Objectives? An Interview with Dr. Samuel PostlethwaitPostlethwait, Samuel (Virginia Tech. Learning Resources Center, 1978-08)
- A Neo-Marxian Critique, Formulation and Test of Juvenile Dispositions as a Function of Social ClassCarter, T.; Clelland, D. (University of California Press, 1979)First, this research challenges the methodological adequacy of previous juvenile disposition studies, particularly their conceptualization and measure of social class. Second, a neo-Marxian theory of juvenile court dispositions is presented. This theory distinguishes between two offense patterns (traditional crimes against person and property and crimes against the moral order, status and victimless offenses) in terms of their relative impact on the social relations of production, subsequently revealing distinct disposition trends. Finally, a multivariate test of two propositions derived from this neo-Marxian theory is provided. The findings support the present neo-Marxian theory of juvenile disposition sentencing concerning the strength of greater social class discriminatory tendencies in the disposition of moral as opposed to traditional offenses.
- Higher education and the labor market in AsiaSanyal, Bikas C. (UNESCO. IIEP, 1982)Whatever the political ideology of a government, employment of the educated is increasingly being considered as an essential element of national development, not only because the labor market is at the core of social and economic development since it determines the role of an active citizen, but also because every citizen is entitled to have a social role to play, and, today, paid employment is the means of playing that role. This is why the discussion on higher education and the labor market becomes important in the context of any debate on higher education and development. In this context, the author aims to examine the features and relationships between higher education and labor market in Asia during the eighties.
- Higher Education in the United StatesDoucette, Donald S. (UNESCO European Centre for Higher Education, 1982)A variety of organizational, curricular and philosophical features of the system of higher education in the United States distinguish it from higher education systems in the world, but the system's size, egalitarianism, diversity and comprehensiveness are the most notable and significant of these distinguishing features. The system of higher education in the United States is also conspicuously diverse and decentralized. This book describes both the diversity and the standardization that coexist in the higher education system. It generalizes cautiously where standardization is both apparent and predominant. The book also points out that new programs are developed continuously to meet emerging societal needs, such as those in energy and the environment, as well as to meet the needs and interests of new clientele : the elderly, middle-age women attempting to reenter the job market, and the educationally disadvantaged seeking basic skill development.
- An Exchange of Opinion - MacArthur, Quezon, and Executive Order Number One--Another ViewRogers, P. P.; Petillo, C. (University of California Press, 1983)
- Review: Traditional American Indian Literatures: Texts and InterpretationsFine, Emily C. (Journal of American Folklore, 1983)This book is a welcome addition to studies of American Indian folklore and ethnopoetics. Karl Kroeber has compiled five essays by himself, Jarold Ramsey, Dennis Tedlock, Barre Toelken and Tacheeni Scott, and Dell Hymes to support his argument that Indian narratives are first-rate works of art that need sophisticated critical attention. The book's purpose is twofold: to correct critical ethnocentrism and to enable readers to recognize the artistry of traditiononal American Indian narratives.
- In Defense of Literary Dialect: A Response to Dennis R. PrestonFine, Emily C. (Journal of American Folklore, 1983)If folklorists were to accept Dennis R. Preston's (1982) charges against their attempts to record dialect in print, they might feel embarrassed that their textmaking of the 1970s was so bad. Few folklorists would like to admit that their efforts at representing folk speech are culturally or racially biased; nor would they like to think that their uses of literary dialect respellings "having as their primary effect on the reader a demotion of opinion of the speaker represented" (Preston 1982:323). Yet if we accept Preston's data and premises, and adopt his "rules" for determining what to respell, then we will seriously undermine the study of folklore as artistic verbal performance. While Preston's interest in improving the quality of texts is laudable, there are serious problems with his presentation of data, his attitude toward the print medium as a vehicle for recording performance features, and his rules for respelling.
- Review: Don't Go Up Kettle Creek: Verbal Legacy of the Upper CumberlandSpeer, Jean H. (Journal of American Folklore, 1984)In Don't Go Up Kettle Creek, Montell reconstructs the history of the Upper Cumberland River region "as it is perceived from the vernacular point of view, relying on personal reminiscences, oral traditions, balladry and song, and printed materials (which were themselves derived from oral history data) as primary sources of information" (p. 1). Although these oral sources provide the substance of the book, Montell corroborates the oral information wherever possible using more standard historical and folkloristic printed resources. Continuing a tradition he has established in his own work, Montell early on sets forth his sources of information, his methodology, his motives, and his philosophy for this study. On all these points, he appears careful in his approach to oral history research and is unusually clear in making his approach known to the reader.
- Values for Varmints: Predator Control and Environmental Ideas, 1920-1939Dunlap, T. R. (University of California Press, 1984)
- Accounting for Occupational and Organizational Commitment: A Longitudinal Reexamination of Structural and Attitudinal ApproachesSnizek, William E.; Little, Robert E. (University of California Press, 1984)Using longitudinal data collected from a subsample (N = 92) of subjects surveyed five years earlier by Shoemaker et al. (1977), the present study assesses the relative utility of two distinctly different approaches to the study of occupational and organizational commitment. The first is the structural investments or side-bet approach made famous by Becker (1960); the second, the attitudinal or social psychological perspective used by Ritzer and Trice (1969), among others. Based on regression analyses of data, for the two time periods studied and for changes across time, structural variables appear to be slightly better predictors of commitment than do attitudinal variables. Of particular note, however, are the changes in predictive power of each approach, relative to both occupational and organizational commitment, when comparing two distinct stages in the worker career of employees represented by the five-year span of the study.
- Who Will Benefit from ESOPs?Rothschild, Joyce (Cornell University ILR School, 1985)[Excerpt] In the past decade, the number of worker-owned firms or ESOPs (Employee Stock Ownership Plans) has been growing geometrically. The national law granting tax incentives to ESOPs was passed in 1975, and since then several other pieces of legislation promoting employee ownership have passed at the federal level and in eight state legislatures. As a result of the technical assistance and industrial revenue bonds that some states now provide for ESOP development, and as a result of demonstrable tax, productivity, labor relations and even marketing advantages, business has taken note of the ESOP option. Several thousand ESOPs have started and scores of reports on employee ownership have appeared in the popular press and in business and trade publications.
- Ideology and the Clamshell Identity - Organizational Dilemmas in the Antinuclear Power MovementDowney, Gary L. (University of California Press, 1986-06)This ethnographic study examines the role of ideology in the development of organizational dilemmas in the Clamshell Alliance, an anti-nuclear protest group active in New England during the late 1970s. In 1977, the Alliance received national recognition for its use of consensus decision making and nonviolent civil disobedience during a highly publicized two-week incarceration following an attempted occupation of the Seabrook nuclear plant. But over the next few years, sharp internal disagreements developed over the use of these strategies, leading ultimately to a factional split. I extend theory from symbolic anthropology to integrate the analysis of ideology into the study of resource mobilization without sacrificing the latter's emphasis on rational calculation. My analysis shows that the Alliance's anti-nuclear ideology established an egalitarian identity for the group which structured both the initial selection of strategies and later efforts to modify them.
- American Wildlife Policy and Environmental Ideology: Poisoning Coyotes, 1939-1972Dunlap, T. R. (University of California Press, 1986-08)
- Work Values, Job Characteristics, and GenderNeil, C. C.; Snizek, William E. (University of California Press, 1987-07)This study uses ordinal regression analysis to examine the impact of gender on work values, after controlling for various organizational variables. The analysis is based on a complete enumeration of women in a large Australian organization, together with "representative" and "matched" samples of male employees. When organizational variables are controlled, women are shown to place greater importance on working relations, men on salary, job status, and prestige in the community. Type of work has a significant impact on work values, as does the interaction of gender and type of work, thus supporting the argument that the array of occupations studied may be an important factor in explaining conflicting prior findings concerning the influence of gender on work values. While gender differences in some work values remain after a variety of organizational variables are considered, a model based on work experiences may still be appropriate for explaining such observed differences.