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- Master plan, 1983-1993, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University(Virginia Tech, 1984)
- Prospects for Coalbed Methane Development in VirginiaRandolph, John; Balasubrahmanyam, Sunil (Virginia Tech. Virginia Center for Coal and Energy Research., 1990-03-15)This report reviews the prospects for commercial development of coalbed methane in Virginia. The first section summarizes recent studies on resource potential. The second describes production technologies and marketing options. The third discusses legal and institutional issues, including recent changes in the regulatory framework. The final section offers conclusions and recommendations for further study.
- Cogeneration/IPP Development in the Virginia Coalfields: Coal and Natural Gas AvailabilityRandolph, John; Zipper, Carl E.; Hensley, Michael (Virginia Tech. Virginia Center for Coal and Energy Research., 1990-05)This study attempts to quantify the potential for cogeneration and independent power production (IPP) development based on local ruel availability in the Virginia coalfields. An estimate of available fuel is determined from interviews with a sample of the region's largest coal and natural gas producers. They were asked specifically what quantity of coal or gas they would be willing to provide under long-term contract to such local facilities. Certain assumptions on price and fuel quality were prnvided. The study demonstrates that, given the right price conditions, substantial coal supplies could be available to such a local cogeneration/lPP market. Surveyed producers indicated about 4.5 million tons per year might be available. These producers represent 82 percent of Virginia's coal production. The major factors arfecting their willingness to provide this coal include: (1) the desirability of long-term contracts; (2) the flexible coal quality specifications such plants would accept; and (3) the dedicated, local market that would help secure them from the uncertainty of distant markets and rail transport costs.
- High-Extraction Mining, Subsidence, and Virginia’s Water ResourcesRoth, Richard A.; Randolph, John; Zipper, Carl E. (Virginia Tech. Virginia Center for Coal and Energy Research., 1990-05)The Virginia Center for Coal and Energy Research was established in 1977 as an "interdisciplinary study, research, inrormation and resource facility for the Commonwealth. As a public service research organization, the Center's mission is to research and provide information on coal and energy issues or public interest. It was with this mission in mind that we initiated this project to explore the technical, regulatory, and legal issues concerning mine subsidence and water resources in Virginia. Because of the sensitive nature or this subject to the coal industry, citizens' and environmental groups, and state agencies and policy makers, we have undertaken a deliberate and lengthy process of research, draft reports, and circulation for review and comment. The research was initiated in May 1988. The original draft was prepared in May 1989 and circulated lo state agency representatives and coal companies. Extensive comments were received over the next several months and a second rewritten draft was circulated for wider review in October 1989. Once again, lengthy comments were received, prompting further research which was incorporated into this final report. It has been our intent in this study to provide the most balanced review possible of a most complex and sensitive subject. We sincerely hope that we have achieved that objective and that this report will contribute to further discussions and research on mine subsidence and water resources in Virginia.
- B. Water Resources Management in Virginia and the Role of LocalitiesRandolph, John (Virginia Tech. College of Architecture and Urban Studies., 1991-03)This report is one of ten volumes that make up the Sourcebook for Local Water Resources Management, which provides a wide range of information to assist localities in Virginia. The compendium was produced by a team from the College of Architecture and Urban Studies at Virginia Tech with a grant from the Virginia Environmental Endowment (VEE). The objective of the project is to help localities develop the means to respond to local water-related problems and to incorporate water resources information into land use and comprehensive planning.
- Virginia Coal, 1991Randolph, John; Jones, Johanna R.; Prelaz, Louis J.; Zipper, Carl E. (Virginia Tech, 1991-07)A complete annual directory and data reference source for all mines licensed in the Commonwealth. Mine listings for each operation include company and mine name, location and contact person, coal owner, seam worked, employees, production, productivity and mining equipment used. Other information contained in Virginia Coal includes state production data, county coal summaries, coal analyses, natural-gas production data, rail information and Hampton Roads coal-export information and service directories. It is the most complete catalog of its kind available anywhere in the state.
- Evaluation of the Virginia Weatherization ProgramRandolph, John; Greely, Katherine M.; Hill, William H. (Virginia Tech. Virginia Center for Coal and Energy Research., 1991-11)Since its inception in 1975, the Virginia Weatherization Program has installed energy conservation measures in more than 60,000 low-income housing units. The program has been administered by the Virginia Department of Social Services (VDSS)1 with funds provided by the federal Weatherization Assistance Program in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and supplemented in recent years by state "oil overcharge" funds. Under contract to VOSS, the program is operated by the Virginia Association of Community Action Agencies, Inc. (VACAA), which issues subcontracts to local community action and other agencies (so-called "subgrantees") to implement the program at the local level. VACAA oversees local implementation by establishing installation standards for the energy conservation measures and procedures to be applied, inspecting and monitoring houses completed, and reimbursing local agencies for job completions based on the cost of materials put into the houses. For many years, VACAA based its installation standards on "Project Retro-Tech", a priority system developed by DOE. Recent advances in weatherization in other states convinced VACAA staff that some of the measures in Virginia's standards may not be as effective as other new measures. In 1988, VACAA began making changes to their standards to reflects some of these advances. However, the agency soon realized that a full evaluation of the program would be necessary to see how these new measures fit Virginia's climate, housing stock, and local weatherization capabilities, and how much they could improve the effectiveness of the program. In June 1989, the Virginia Association of Community Action Agencies, Inc. (VACAA) contracted the Virginia Center for Coal and Energy Research (VCCER) to conduct an evaluation of the Virginia Weatherization Program. The study ran through December 1990. The main objective of the evaluation was to improve the energy savings and cost-effectiveness of the program by developing a new protocol of energy conservation measures and recommending improvements in administrative procedures. This final report of the study describes the project and its principal findings and recommendations. The project was conducted by VCCER's John Randolph and Kathy Greely with assistance from Bill Hill (Center for Energy Research, Education Service at Ball State University) and Larry Kinney (Synertech Systems Corp.). Special training of Virginia weatherization crews for purposes of the study was conducted by R.W. Davis and Rudy Leatherman (Corporation for Ohio Appalachian Development), Rana Belshe and Tom Wilson (Residential Energy Conservation Consulting Group (RECCG), and Jim Fitzgerald. In addition to the final report, a Training and Technical Assistance Manual for Virginia Weatherization produced by COAD, RECCG, and Larry Kinney, was a product of the evaluation project.
- A Preliminary Feasibility Study of a New Electricity Transmission Line From the Virginia Coalfield to the Virginia Power SystemCenter for Coal and Energy Research (Virginia Tech. Virginia Center for Coal and Energy Research., 1992)Virginia House Joint Resolution No. 441 (February, 1991) directed the Virginia State Corporation Commission and the Virginia Center for Coal and Energy Research (VCCER) to "study means available, prior to 1998, to 'wheel' power produced by electric power plants in southwestern Virginia" to the Virginia Power transmission network, for purchase by Virginia Power. The Resolution directed that the VCCER study address new transmission line construction options that might be pursued "in addition to" the Wyoming - Cloverdale and Joshua Falls - Ladysmith transmission construction programs currently proposed by Appalachian Power Company (Apco) and Virginia Power. This report summarizes the results of the VCCER study.
- Virginia Coal, 1992Randolph, John; Jones, Johanna R.; Prelaz, Louis J.; Zipper, Carl E. (Virginia Tech, 1992-07)A complete annual directory and data reference source for all mines licensed in the Commonwealth. Mine listings for each operation include company and mine name, location and contact person, coal owner, seam worked, employees, production, productivity and mining equipment used. Other information contained in Virginia Coal includes state production data, county coal summaries, coal analyses, natural-gas production data, rail information and Hampton Roads coal-export information and service directories. It is the most complete catalog of its kind available anywhere in the state.
- An Examination of Policies to Promote Greater Use of Wood Processing Industry Wastes for Fuel in State FacilitiesZipper, Carl E.; Muench, John (Virginia Tech. Virginia Center for Coal and Energy Research., 1993)The 1992 House Joint Resolution 69 directed the Virginia Coal and Energy Commission, with the assistance of the Virginia Center for Coal and Energy Research (VCCER) and the Brooks Forest Products Center (BFPC), to "examine policies necessary to promote greater use of wood wastes for fuels by state facilities." This report contains the results of investigations conducted by VCCER and BFPC at the request of the Virginia Coal and Energy Commission to achieve the objectives of House Joint Resolution 69.
- Virginia Coal, 1993Randolph, John; Jones, Johanna R.; Prelaz, Louis J.; Zipper, Carl E. (Virginia Tech, 1993-07)A complete annual directory and data reference source for all mines licensed in the Commonwealth. Mine listings for each operation include company and mine name, location and contact person, coal owner, seam worked, employees, production, productivity and mining equipment used. Other information contained in Virginia Coal includes state production data, county coal summaries, coal analyses, natural-gas production data, rail information and Hampton Roads coal-export information and service directories. It is the most complete catalog of its kind available anywhere in the state.
- Assessment of Virginia Coalfield Region Capability to Support an Electric Power Generation IndustryZipper, Carl E.; Henritze, Thomas K.; Randolph, John (Virginia Tech. Virginia Center for Coal and Energy Research., 1994-01)This paper describes the results of research conducted to assess the capacity of the Virginia coalfields to support electric power generation facilities. The research also addressed potential economic impacts of power generation facilities.
- An Analysis of Household Water Supply Impacts by Underground Coal Mining in VirginiaZipper, Carl E.; Balfour, William; Randolph, John; Roth, Richard A. (Virginia Tech. Virginia Center for Coal and Energy Research., 1994-05)Underground coal mining can affect wells and springs used as water supplies. Subsidence caused by underground mining is generally acknowledged to be a primary cause of groundwater resource effects. In coal producing regions of Virginia and neighboring states, many rural residents depend on groundwater as their primary water source. Although it is well known that underground mines can impact groundwater supplies, guidelines for determining if a specific mining operation will be likely to affect a particular water supply have not been developed for the Virginia coalfield area. Complicating factors include variations in mining methods, depth of mining, and geology among locations within the Virginia coalfield area, and between the Virginia coalfield and mining areas in other states. Throughout central Appalachia, contested allegations of water supply impacts have been the subject of disputes between mining firms and residents. The costs associated with disruptions of groundwater supplies in rural areas can be substantial. When a household's water supply is disrupted, an alternative supply must be developed or the property must be abandoned. One way or the other, somebody must pay. When the cause of a water supply disruption is disputed, both sides must bear costs to resolve that dispute, through litigation or other means. Rational resource management requires that clear guidelines be available for determining cause-and-effect relationships. Such guidelines are not currently available for application to potential water supply impacts of underground mining operations in Virginia. The purpose of this paper is to report the results of an analysis of water supply impacts of underground mining in Virginia. We analyzed reports of 73 water supply investigations conducted by the Virginia Division of Mined Land Reclamation (VDMLR). These investigations were conducted between 1981 and 1987 for the purpose of resolving disputes between surface residents and underground mining firms. The results of the VDMLR investigations were analyzed with reference to guidelines for identifying the zone of subsidence influence on groundwater supplies which were prepared by geologist Henry Rauch (1989). based on research which he and his students conducted in the northern West Virginia - western Pennsylvania area. Rauch's "rules of thumb" are the most complete and explicit published guidelines for determining subsidence impacts on water supplies in Appalachia. This research addresses a subject that is relevant to recently enacted legislation. Section 2504 of the federal Energy Policy Act of 1992 requires mining firms to replace water supplies damaged by underground mining. Virginia House Bill 1687 (1993) also requires water replacement. In developing regulations to implement these laws, federal and state agencies must develop guidelines for determining whether or not alleged water supply impacts are, in fact, mining related.
- Virginia Coal, 1994Randolph, John; Jones, Johanna R.; Prelaz, Louis J.; Zipper, Carl E. (Virginia Tech, 1994-07)
- In-state Economic Impacts of the Virginia Coal Industry and Potential Coal Production DeclinesZipper, Carl E. (Virginia Tech. Virginia Center for Coal and Energy Research., 1995-05)Production and transportation of coal make a significant contribution to the Virginia economy. Several recent reports, however, indicate that Virginia coal production appears vulnerable to substantial decline in the near future (Milici and Campbell, 1991; Energy Ventures Analysis, 1994; Crabtree, 1995). This report provides an estimate of the in-state economic impacts of the Virginia coal-mining industry during the year 1993. This analysis also addresses the potential economic impacts of declining coal production. This analysis was conducted prior to the April, 1995, enactment of coal tax credit legislation by the Commonwealth of Virginia; neither the effects of that legislation, nor those Virginia tax credits available to coal purchasers in effect prior to that legislation, are considered in this analysis. Virginia coal production in 1994 (38.8 million tons, according to Virginia DMME) was over 16.5 percent below peak 1990's production levels. Virginia Employment Commission data show that coal-industry employment declined by well over 2,000 jobs (approximately 20 percent) between 1990 and 1993. Preliminary data from the Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy indicate that, during 1994, approximately 830 additional coal-mining jobs have been lost. The impact of declining coal-mine employment has been especially severe in southwestern Virginia's coal-producing countries. In 1994, five of southwestern Virginia's seven coal-producing counties had unemployment rates which were among the state's top eight, out of 136 jurisdictions statewide (Figure 1). Two of the major coal-producing counties ranked first and second for having the state's highest unemployment rates: 16.2% in Dickenson County and 15% in Buchanan County. The state average for 1994 was 4.9%.
- Virginia Coal, 1995Randolph, John; Jones, Johanna R.; Prelaz, Louis J.; Zipper, Carl E. (Virginia Tech, 1995-07)
- Economic Impacts of Virginiais Natural Gas IndustriesZipper, Carl E.; Gilroy, Leonard (Virginia Tech. Virginia Center for Coal and Energy Research., 1995-09)This study estimates the contributions of the natural gas industries to Virginia's economy. Activities covered by this study include the production of natural gas and associated products from wells in southwestern Virginia, gas transportation, and the distribution of natural gas to consumers throughout Virginia. The economic impacts of Virginia's natural gas industries considered by this study include direct, indirect, and induced effects. Direct effects include employment, payroll expenditures, and state and local tax expenditures by Virginia's natural gas industries; baseline data from published sources and an industry survey were used to estimate direct effects. A measure of direct effects, however, does not capture the full extent of the gas industries' economic impact A portion of the revenues received by these industries is spent in Virginia communities to pun:hase goods and services. In addition, wages and salaries received by natural gas industry employees, and by employees of supporting industries, support economic activity within the state. The business activities supported by industry and employee expenditures are called indirect and induced effects. Economic multipliers were applied to baseline data to estimate the indirect and induced economic effects resulting from the production, transportation, and distribution of natural gas in Virginia. In 1993, Virginia's natural gas industries employed over 3,000 people who earned more than $140 million in wages and salaries. In addition, over $80 million of industry revenues supported state and local governments as taxes and other payments. However, the industries' total economic impacts went well beyond these figures. Total in-state economic impacts of Virginia's natural gas industries - including direct, indirect and induced effects - during 1993 are estimated at over $1.5 billion in total economic activity, 12,000 jobs, and $350 million in payroll income.