Graduate Student Papers

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  • Effects of the Phosphodiesterase 10A Inhibitor MR1916 on Alcohol Self-Administration and Striatal Gene Expression in Post-Chronic Intermittent Ethanol-Exposed Rats
    Bertotto, Luísa B.; Lampson-Stixrud, Dolly; Sinha, Anushka; Rohani, Nicki K.; Myer, Isabella; Zorrilla, Eric P. (MDPI, 2024-02-09)
    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) requires new neurobiological targets. Problematic drinking involves underactive indirect pathway medium spiny neurons (iMSNs) that subserve adaptive behavioral selection vs. overactive direct pathway MSNs (dMSNs) that promote drinking, with a shift from ventromedial to dorsolateral striatal (VMS, DLS) control of EtOH-related behavior. We hypothesized that inhibiting phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A), enriched in striatal MSNs, would reduce EtOH self-administration in rats with a history of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure. To test this, Wistar rats (n = 10/sex) with a history of chronic intermittent EtOH (CIE) vapor exposure received MR1916 (i.p., 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 µmol/kg), a PDE10A inhibitor, before operant EtOH self-administration sessions. We determined whether MR1916 altered the expression of MSN markers (Pde10a, Drd1, Drd2, Penk, and Tac1) and immediate-early genes (IEG) (Fos, Fosb, ΔFosb, and Egr1) in EtOH-naïve (n = 5–6/grp) and post-CIE (n = 6–8/grp) rats. MR1916 reduced the EtOH self-administration of high-drinking, post-CIE males, but increased it at a low, but not higher, doses, in females and low-drinking males. MR1916 increased Egr1, Fos, and FosB in the DLS, modulated by sex and alcohol history. MR1916 elicited dMSN vs. iMSN markers differently in ethanol-naïve vs. post-CIE rats. High-drinking, post-CIE males showed higher DLS Drd1 and VMS IEG expression. Our results implicate a role and potential striatal bases of PDE10A inhibitors to influence post-dependent drinking.
  • Psychosocial Factors Associated with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms One Year Postpartum
    Cunningham, Shayna D.; Carandang, Rogie Royce; Boyd, Lisa M.; Lewis, Jessica B.; Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Rickey, Leslie M. (MDPI, 2023-12-27)
    Pregnancy carries substantial risk for developing lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs), with potential lifelong impacts on bladder health. Little is known about modifiable psychosocial factors that may influence the risk of postpartum LUTSs. We examined associations between depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and postpartum LUTSs, and the moderating effects of perceived social support, using data from a cohort study of Expect With Me group prenatal care (n = 462). One year postpartum, 40.3% participants reported one or more LUTS. The most frequent LUTS was daytime frequency (22.3%), followed by urinary incontinence (19.5%), urgency (18.0%), nocturia (15.6%), and bladder pain (6.9%). Higher odds of any LUTS were associated with greater depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04–1.11) and perceived stress (AOR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04–1.19). Higher perceived social support was associated with lower odds of any LUTS (AOR 0.94, 95% CI 0.88–0.99). Perceived social support mitigated the adverse effects of depressive symptoms (interaction AOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.98–0.99) and perceived stress (interaction AOR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95–0.99) on experiencing any LUTS. Greater depressive symptoms and perceived stress may increase the likelihood of experiencing LUTSs after childbirth. Efforts to promote bladder health among postpartum patients should consider psychological factors and social support.
  • Effects of Activation Barriers on Quenching to Stabilize Prebiotic Chemical Systems
    Sheng, Qianyi; Intoy, Ben Fredrick; Halley, J. W. (MDPI, 2024-01-12)
    We have previously shown in model studies that rapid quenches of systems of monomers interacting to form polymer chains can fix nonequilibrium chemistries with some lifelike properties. We suggested that such quenching processes might have occurred at very high rates on early Earth, giving an efficient mechanism for natural sorting through enormous numbers of nonequilibrium chemistries from which the most lifelike ones could be naturally selected. However, the model used for these studies did not take account of activation barriers to polymer scission (peptide bond hydrolysis in the case of proteins). Such barriers are known to exist and are expected to enhance the quenching effect. Here, we introduce a modified model which takes activation barriers into account and we compare the results to data from experiments on quenched systems of amino acids. We find that the model results turn out to be sensitive to the width of the distribution of barrier heights but quite insensitive to its average value. The results of the new model are in significantly better agreement with the experiments than those found using our previous model. The new parametrization of the model only requires one new parameter and the parametrization is more physical than the previous one, providing a chemical interpretation of the parameter p in our previous models. Within the model, a characteristic temperature Tc emerges such that if the temperature of the hot stage is above Tc and the temperature of the cold stage is below it, then the ‘freezing out’, in a quench, of a disequilibrium ensemble of long polymers is expected. We discuss the possible relevance of this to models of the origin of life in emissions from deep ocean rifts.
  • Gender Specific Factors Associated With Hazards of Pesticide Usage among Cocoa Farmers in Nigeria
    Olowoyo, Olamide; Deji, Olanike Fasilat; Sulaimon, Waheed Suberu; Faniyi, Ebunoluwa Oyindamola (2019)
    This study assessed the gender specific factors associated with health and environmental hazards of pesticide usage among cocoa farmers in Ekiti State, Nigeria a region known with predominance in cocoa production. It specifically described the socio-economic characteristics of male and female cocoa farmers and isolate factors associated with health and environmental hazards of pesticide usage in cocoa production. 120 male cocoa farmers and 120 female cocoa farmers were selected through multi stage purposive sampling technique in five local government areas of the state, to make a total of 240 respondents for the study. The study adopts the use of inferential and descriptive statistics to analyze the data from the survey. The mean age for male and female cocoa farmers was 52.5±9.82 and 45.2± 8.49 respectively while the mean years of cocoa farming experience for male and female cocoa farmers was 27.9±9.23 and 22.3±9.68 respectively. Varimax factor rotation pattern was used to isolate six factors associated with health and environmental hazards for male cocoa farmers which include: ‘information source factor’, ‘extension contact factor’, ‘experience factor’, ‘knowledge-pesticide usage factor’, ‘group membership factor’ and ‘family factor’ and six factors associated with health and environmental hazards for female cocoa farmers which include: ‘knowledge factor’, ‘information source factor’ ‘group membership factor’ ‘extension contact factor’ ‘family factor’ and ‘pesticide usage’ were isolated. Awareness of the gender specific factors to understanding hidden gender issues associated with hazards of pesticide usage among cocoa farmers was recommended. Hence, this is to ensure sustainable pesticide usage and to boost environmental productivity for rural development.
  • Gender Utilization of Forest Products among Rural Dwellers in Osun State, Nigeria
    Sulaimon, Waheed Suberu; Deji, Olanike Fasilat; Olowoyo, Olamide; Faniyi, Ebunoluwa Oyindamola (2019)
    This study specifically determined male and female’s level of utilization of forest products among rural dwellers in Osun State, Nigeria through the instrumentality of gender lens. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used in selecting a total of 240 respondents. Structured interview schedule and Focus Group Discussion Guide were used to collect quantitative and qualitative data. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential tools. The results show that the mean level of utilization of forest products for male respondents was 266.99±70.31, while that of female respondents was 248.23±72.04 (with a maximum obtainable score of 747). The results of t-test show that calculated t-value of 2.042 was higher than the critical t-value of 0.042 at p≤0.05 with 238 degrees of freedom. This result implies that there was a significant difference in the utilization of forest products by male and female respondents. The Focus Group Discussion results show that male respondents have favorable disposition in their utilization of economically viable forest products than females. This in turn has created a source of financial advantage through a robust economic engagement of males in the study area. However, females have always been at the receiving end of natural resource policies which tend to favor males at their detriment. This in turn has hindered sustainable utilization of forest products in the study area In conclusion; there was a significant difference in the level of utilization of forest products by male and female respondents. The result of this statistical analysis indicates that the calculated t-value of 2.042 is higher than the critical t-value of 0.042 at 0.05 level of significance with 238 degree of freedom. Hence, the study seeks attention in addressing this inequality by engendering policy frameworks which tends to focus on gender equality in order to ensure sustainable forest resource utilization as a panacea for economic development.
  • Gender Perception on the Health and Environmental Hazards of Pesticide Usage among Cocoa Farmers in Ekiti State, Nigeria
    Olowoyo, Olamide; Fasilat, Deji Olanike (Science Publishing Group, 2017)
    The study was conducted in Ekiti State, Nigeria among male and female cocoa farmers, to assess the gender differential in perception of the health and environmental hazards of pesticides usage. Multi stage purposive sampling technique was used to select 120 male cocoa farmers and 120 female cocoa farmers to make a total of 240 respondents for the study. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used to analyse the data. The result showed that male cocoa farmers, likewise female cocoa are vulnerable to health, (tearing and redness of eyes, body pain, headache) hazards, likewise they also indicated their experience of environmental (air pollution, pollute streams) hazards. About 64% Male and 54% female cocoa farmers had a positive perception of the health and environmental hazards of pesticides usage but there was a significant difference between male and female cocoa farmers perception of pesticides hazards. It was concluded that majority male as well as female cocoa farmers in Ekiti State were vulnerable to one pesticide hazards or the other. Adequate and frequent training was recommended for male and female cocoa farmers on pesticides hazards, at the same time less reliance on pesticides usage to reduce vulnerability to the hazards.
  • Water Infrastructure Sustainable Development
    Adesoji, Tolulope (2022-11-15)
    This paper explores the role of water infrastructure in sustainable development, with a specific focus on stormwater management. The paper emphasizes sustainable approaches within the water sector, examining stormwater management techniques that mitigate flooding risks. Central to this discussion is the concept of green infrastructure as an example of a decentralized system. The paper also identifies and measures social and environmental indicators influenced by sustainable water infrastructure development.
  • National Strategy for Road Transportation Electromobility
    Adesoji, Tolulope (2022)
    This paper explores the challenges and opportunities in transitioning from fossil fuel vehicles to electric vehicles in the road transportation sector. This paper focuses on the pivotal role of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in electric vehicles (EVs). The study advocates the need for comprehensive strategies, which include national policies, rebates, tax credits, and battery recycling investments to help mitigate environmental impacts, reduce carbon emissions, and stimulate economic growth. The paper also emphasizes the importance of recycling spent batteries while scrutinizing the environmental and social consequences of raw material mining for battery production. The paper also proposed strategies to balance promoting electromobility and addressing potential equity and environmental concerns while offering a holistic perspective on the sustainable evolution of road transportation.
  • Beyond the regulatory radar: knowledge and practices of rural medical practitioners in Bangladesh
    Sujon, Hasnat; Sarker, Mohammad H. R.; Uddin, Aftab; Banu, Shakila; Islam, Mohammod R.; Amin, Md. R.; Hossain, Md. S.; Alahi, Md. F.; Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Rizvi, Syed J. R.; Islam, Mohammad Z.; Uzzaman, Md. N. (2023-11-30)
    Background: Informal and unregulated rural medical practitioners (RMPs) provide healthcare services to about two-thirds of people in Bangladesh, although their service is assumed to be substandard by qualified providers. As the RMPs are embedded in the local community and provide low-cost services, their practice pattern demands investigation to identify the shortfalls and design effective strategies to ameliorate the service. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 2015–16 using a convenient sample from all 64 districts of Bangladesh. Personnel practising modern medicine, without any recognized training, or with recognized training but practising outside their defined roles, and without any regulatory oversight were invited to take part in the study. Appropriateness of the diagnosis and the rationality of antibiotic and other drug use were measured as per the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness guideline. Results: We invited 1004 RMPs, of whom 877 consented. Among them, 656 (74.8%) RMPs owned a drugstore, 706 (78.2%) had formal education below higher secondary level, and 844 (96.2%) had informal training outside regulatory oversight during or after induction into the profession. The most common diseases encountered by them were common cold, pneumonia, and diarrhoea. 583 (66.5%) RMPs did not dispense any antibiotic for common cold symptoms. 59 (6.7%) and 64 (7.3%) of them could identify all main symptoms of pneumonia and diarrhoea, respectively. In pneumonia, 28 (3.2%) RMPs dispensed amoxicillin as first-line treatment, 819 (93.4%) dispensed different antibiotics including ceftriaxone, 721 (82.2%) dispensed salbutamol, and 278 (31.7%) dispensed steroid. In diarrhoea, 824 (94.0%) RMPs dispensed antibiotic, 937 (95.4%) dispensed ORS, 709 (80.8%) dispensed antiprotozoal, and 15 (1.7%) refrained from dispensing antibiotic and antiprotozoal together. Conclusions: Inappropriate diagnoses, irrational use of antibiotics and other drugs, and polypharmacy were observed in the practising pattern of RMPs. The government and other stakeholders should acknowledge them as crucial partners in the healthcare sector and consider ways to incorporate them into curative and preventive care.
  • Mapping Out the Core Constructs of Social Justice as Heuristics in Selected Technical Communication Articles Using the 4Rs Model
    Ojedele-Adejumo, Temitope (ACM, 2023-10-26)
    This study analyzes social justice thematic directions in technical communication research using Walton et al.’s 4Rs model to determine the field’s conceptualization of justice.
  • Folkloric Tradition as an Epistemology of Environmental Justice
    Ojedele-Adejumo, Temitope (ACM, 2023-10-26)
    This paper explores the connection of Nigerian folkloric tradition to environmental justice through rhetorical analyses of oral traditions. It aims to establish effective approaches to discussing environmental justice in technical communication, focusing on transnational environmental policies and bottom-up interventions. The paper serves as a representative research approach for exploring other non-western traditions and their connection to environmental issues and justice pursuits.
  • Planning Locomotion Techniques for Virtual Reality Games
    Moore, Cameron; Lages, Wallace (ACM, 2023-10-09)
    Locomotion is a fundamental component in many virtual reality (VR) games. However, few techniques have been designed with game’s demands in mind. In this paper, we propose two locomotion techniques for fast-paced VR games: Repeated Short-Range Teleports and Continuous Movement Pads. We conducted a user study with 27 participants using these techniques against Smooth Locomotion and Teleport in a game-like scenario. We found that Movement Pads can be a suitable alternative for games, with competitive performance on various criteria such as time, damage taken, usability, workload, and user preference. On the other hand, Repeated Short-Range Teleport displayed lower usability and higher mental workload.
  • MEMTIS: Efficient Memory Tiering with Dynamic Page Classification and Page Size Determination
    Lee, Taehyung; Monga, Sumit Kumar; Min, Changwoo; Eom, Young Ik (ACM, 2023-10-23)
    The evergrowing memory demand fueled by datacenter workloads is the driving force behind new memory technology innovations (e.g., NVM, CXL). Tiered memory is a promising solution which harnesses such multiple memory types with varying capacity, latency, and cost characteristics in an effort to reduce server hardware costs while fulfilling memory demand. Prior works on memory tiering make suboptimal (often pathological) page placement decisions because they rely on various heuristics and static thresholds without considering overall memory access distribution. Also, deciding the appropriate page size for an application is difficult as huge pages are not always beneficial as a result of skewed accesses within them. We present Memtis, a tiered memory system that adopts informed decision-making for page placement and page size determination. Memtis leverages access distribution of allocated pages to optimally approximate the hot data set to the fast tier capacity. Moreover, Memtis dynamically determines the page size that allows applications to use huge pages while avoiding their drawbacks by detecting inefficient use of fast tier memory and splintering them if necessary. Our evaluation shows that Memtis outperforms state-of-the-art tiering systems by up to 169.0% and their best by up to 33.6%.
  • GesMessages: Using Mid-air Gestures to Manage Notifications
    Li, Xiang; Chen, Yuzheng; Tang, Xiaohang (ACM, 2023-10-13)
    This paper introduces GesMessages, an innovative mid-air interactive application that uses simple gestures to manage real-time message notifications on laptops and large displays. Leveraging cameras on computers or smart devices, the application offers three distinct gestures: expanding notifications for immediate attention, hiding non-urgent messages, and deleting spam messages. We present the technical setup and system design. Additionally, we explore potential applications in context-awareness systems, contributing to gestural interaction research. Our work fosters a deeper understanding of mid-air interaction’s impact on message management and future interactive systems.
  • Sustaining Green Infrastructure through Community Engagement: A Call to Action
    Adesoji, Tolulope (Virginia Tech, 2023-10-17)
    The policy brief addresses the importance of maintaining green infrastructure systems in cities and municipalities in the United States. It also highlights the benefits of green infrastructure, such as stormwater management and improved quality of life, while emphasizing proper maintenance. The brief offers recommendations for policymakers, including collaborative partnerships, funding availability, community engagement, and effectiveness of green infrastructure, contributing to environmental sustainability and community well-being.
  • Numerical Investigation of Cavitating Jet Flow Field with Different Turbulence Models
    Li, Lidong; Xu, Yan; Ge, Mingming; Wang, Zunce; Li, Sen; Zhang, Jinglong (MDPI, 2023-09-19)
    In numerous industries such as drilling, peening, cleaning, etc., a cavitating jet is adopted. However, it is challenging to simulate the cavitating flow field numerically with accuracy. The flow field of the organ pipe cavitation nozzle is simulated in this research using the RNG kε, DES, and LES turbulence models. The LES model can more accurately predict the periodic shedding of a cavitating cloud, which is basically consistent with the jet morphology captured with a high−speed camera. The flow pattern, cavitating cloud evolution and shedding period of a cavitating jet are analyzed. The findings demonstrate that the LES model produces a cavitating effect inside the nozzle that is superior to those produced by the RNG kε and DES models. The vortex rings in the diffusion section are simulated using the LES model, which accelerates cavitation. The cavitating clouds of the organ pipe nozzle show periodic evolutions, with stages of generation, development, shedding and collapse. The periodic shedding of the cavitating clouds exhibits a similar pattern in the vorticities simulated using the LES model, and the vorticities display the small-scale structures where the cavitating bubbles collapse. This study can provide a reference for the simulation of a cavitating jet and the analysis of the cavitating mechanism.
  • Assessment of Machine Learning Algorithms for Predicting Air Entrainment Rates in a Confined Plunging Liquid Jet Reactor
    Alazmi, Asmaa; Al-Anzi, Bader S. (MDPI, 2023-09-15)
    A confined plunging liquid jet reactor (CPLJR) is an unconventional efficient and feasible aerator, mixer and brine dispenser that operates under many operating conditions. Such operating conditions could be challenging, and hence, utilizing prediction models built on machine learning (ML) approaches could be very helpful in giving reliable tools to manage highly non-linear problems related to experimental hydrodynamics such as CPLJRs. CPLJRs are vital in protecting the environment through preserving and sustaining the quality of water resources. In the current study, the effects of the main parameters on the air entrainment rate, Qa, were investigated experimentally in a confined plunging liquid jet reactor (CPLJR). Various downcomer diameters (Dc), jet lengths (Lj), liquid volumetric flow rates (Qj), nozzle diameters (dn), and jet velocities (Vj) were used to measure the air entrainment rate, Qa. The non-linear relationship between the air entrainment ratio and confined plunging jet reactor parameters suggests that applying unconventional regression algorithms to predict the air entrainment ratio is appropriate. In addition to the experimental work, machine learning (ML) algorithms were applied to the confined plunging jet reactor parameters to determine the parameter that predicts Qa the best. The results obtained from ML showed that K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN) gave the best prediction abilities, the proportion of variance in the Qa that can be explained by the CPLJR parameter was 90%, the root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.069, and the mean absolute error (MAE) = 0.052. Sensitivity analysis was applied to determine the most effective predictor in predicting Qa. The Qj and Vj were the most influential among all the input variables. The sensitivity analysis shows that the lasso algorithm can create an effective air entrainment rate model with just two of the most crucial variables, Qj and Vj. The coefficient of determination (R2) was 82%. The present findings support using machine learning algorithms to accurately forecast the CPLJR system’s experimental results.
  • Sustainable Energy Harvesting Mechanism with Flow-Induced Vibration
    Cheng, Marvin H.; Li, Yuejuan; Camargo, Hugo E.; Bakhoum, Ezzat G. (MDPI, 2023-09-11)
    This study investigates the feasibility of utilizing a flow-induced vibration actuator as a potential energy source using piezoelectric energy harvesting. The focus is on exploring the behavior of piezo films configured as cantilever beams subjected to flow-induced vibration, which can be induced with fluid or wind streams. The primary objective is to maximize the harvested energy from the vibrating structure. This paper develops theoretical models to analyze the resonant frequencies and energy-harvesting potential of the piezo films in the context of flow-induced vibration. Experimental validations are conducted to verify the theoretical predictions. The findings indicate that higher operating frequencies in the second mode offer improved energy harvesting efficiency compared with lower modes. With the strategic adjustment of resonant frequencies using attached masses on individual piezo films, the harvestable energy output of a single film can be significantly increased from less than 1 μW to approximately 18 μW. However, the phase differences among individual piezo films can impact frequency measurements, necessitating careful fine-tuning of the physical conditions of individual components. To optimize energy harvesting, this study emphasizes the importance of implementing efficient charging mechanisms. By identifying suitable environmental vibration sources, the required charging duration for a synthesized energy harvesting array can be reduced by 25% as well. Despite certain challenges, such as phase deviations and turbulence, this study demonstrates the promising potential of flow-induced vibration resonators as sustainable energy sources. This work lays the foundation for further advancements in energy harvesting technology, offering environmentally friendly and renewable energy solutions.
  • In Silico Screening of Inhibitors of the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Nonstructural Protein 2 Cysteine Protease
    Hu, Xin; Morazzani, Elaine; Compton, Jaimee R.; Harmon, Moeshia; Soloveva, Veronica; Glass, Pamela J.; Garcia, Andres Dulcey; Marugan, Juan J.; Legler, Patricia M. (MDPI, 2023-07-04)
    The Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) cysteine protease (EC 3.4.22.B79) is essential for viral replication. High throughput in silico/in vitro screening using a focused set of known cysteine protease inhibitors identified two epoxysuccinyl prodrugs, E64d and CA074 methyl ester (CA074me) and a reversible oxindole inhibitor. Here, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of the CA074-inhibited nsP2 protease and compared it with our E64d-inhibited structure. We found that the two inhibitors occupy different locations in the protease. We designed hybrid inhibitors with improved potency. Virus yield reduction assays confirmed that the viral titer was reduced by >5 logs with CA074me. Cell-based assays showed reductions in viral replication for CHIKV, VEEV, and WEEV, and weaker inhibition of EEEV by the hybrid inhibitors. The most potent was NCGC00488909-01 which had an EC50 of 1.76 µM in VEEV-Trd-infected cells; the second most potent was NCGC00484087 with an EC50 = 7.90 µM. Other compounds from the NCATS libraries such as the H1 antihistamine oxatomide (>5-log reduction), emetine, amsacrine an intercalator (NCGC0015113), MLS003116111-01, NCGC00247785-13, and MLS00699295-01 were found to effectively reduce VEEV viral replication in plaque assays. Kinetic methods demonstrated time-dependent inhibition by the hybrid inhibitors of the protease with NCGC00488909-01 (Ki = 3 µM) and NCGC00484087 (Ki = 5 µM). Rates of inactivation by CA074 in the presence of 6 mM CaCl2, MnCl2, or MgCl2 were measured with varying concentrations of inhibitor, Mg2+ and Mn2+ slightly enhanced inhibitor binding (3 to 6-fold). CA074 inhibited not only the VEEV nsP2 protease but also that of CHIKV and WEEV.
  • Unsupervised Learning-Based WSN Clustering for Efficient Environmental Pollution Monitoring
    Tadros, Catherine Nayer; Shehata, Nader; Mokhtar, Bassem (MDPI, 2023-06-20)
    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been adopted in various environmental pollution monitoring applications. As an important environmental field, water quality monitoring is a vital process to ensure the sustainable, important feeding of and as a life-maintaining source for many living creatures. To conduct this process efficiently, the integration of lightweight machine learning technologies can extend its efficacy and accuracy. WSNs often suffer from energy-limited devices and resource-affected operations, thus constraining WSNs’ lifetime and capability. Energy-efficient clustering protocols have been introduced to tackle this challenge. The low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) protocol is widely used due to its simplicity and ability to manage large datasets and prolong network lifetime. In this paper, we investigate and present a modified LEACH-based clustering algorithm in conjunction with a K-means data clustering approach to enable efficient decision making based on water-quality-monitoring-related operations. This study is operated based on the experimental measurements of lanthanide oxide nanoparticles, selected as cerium oxide nanoparticles (ceria NPs), as an active sensing host for the optical detection of hydrogen peroxide pollutants via a fluorescence quenching mechanism. A mathematical model is proposed for the K-means LEACH-based clustering algorithm for WSNs to analyze the quality monitoring process in water, where various levels of pollutants exist. The simulation results show the efficacy of our modified K-means-based hierarchical data clustering and routing in prolonging network lifetime when operated in static and dynamic contexts.