Scholarly Works, Agricultural, Leadership, and Community Education

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  • A Scoping Review of Food Systems Governance Frameworks and Models to Develop a Typology for Social Change Movements to Transform Food Systems for People and Planetary Health
    Kraak, Vivica; Niewolny, Kimberly L. (MDPI, 2024-02-09)
    Effective governance is essential to transform food systems and achieve the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals 2030. Different political ideologies and paradigms inhibit or drive social change movements. This study examined how food systems governance has been described. Thereafter, we reviewed graphic frameworks and models to develop a typology for civil society actors to catalyze social change movements to transform food systems for people and the planet. The scoping review involved (1) formulating research questions; (2) developing a search strategy to identify evidence from four English-language electronic databases and reports, 2010–2023; and (3–4) selecting, analyzing, and synthesizing evidence into a narrative review. Results yielded 5715 records, and 36 sources were selected that described and depicted graphic frameworks and models examined for purpose, scale, political ideology, paradigm, discourse, principles, governance, and democracy. Evidence was used to develop a graphic food systems governance typology with distinct political ideologies (i.e., neoliberal, reformist, progressive, radical); paradigms (i.e., maintain, reform, transition, transform); discourses (i.e., food enterprise, food security, food justice, food sovereignty); types of governance (i.e., multistakeholder, shared, self); and democracy (i.e., representative, participatory, deliberative). This proof-of-concept typology could be applied to examine how change agents use advocacy and activism to strengthen governance for sustainable diets, regenerative food systems, and planetary health.
  • Assessing and measuring leadership identity
    Hastings, Lindsay J.; Sunderman, Hannah M. (Wiley)
    This article explores numerous complexities involved in assessing and measuring leadership identity development. It also reviews leader and leadership identity as well as prior attempts to assess leader and leadership identity development. Recommendations for effective assessment and measurement practices when diagnosing development in leader and leadership identity are offered.
  • Towards Pesticide Smart Agriculture using System Thinking and Precision Farming
    Olowoyo, Olamide; Kaufman, Eric K.; Council, Austin (2023-03-16)
    Pesticides play a major role in agricultural production, they are extensively used in modern agriculture (Sharma et al., 2019). Farmers have continuously relied on pesticides to control pests and diseases and have tremendously increased the production of food (Olowoyo, 2017; Tudi et al., 2021). The use of pesticides remains an effective and economical way to improve the quality and quantity of food production (Sharma et al., 2019). Globally, about 3 million tonnes of pesticide are utilized annually, where China contributes the most, followed by the USA and Argentina (Pariona, 2017; Sharma et al., 2019; Statista, 2023). Despite the contribution of pesticides to agricultural production, indiscriminate usage poses serious consequences to human health and the environment (Olowoyo & Deji, 2017; Sharma et al., 2019). Evidence in the last few decades has shown that they could also be detrimental to human health from food contamination due to pesticide residues, posing threats to the health of the farmers who apply the pesticides as well as the environment (Olowoyo & Deji 2017; Sosan & Akingbohungbe, 2009). In addressing the challenges associated with indiscriminate pesticide usage, the ICEBERG, a tool for guiding systemic thinking, becomes crucial for identifying the root causes of these problems. Similarly, precision farming technologies offer a solution by empowering farmers to make informed decisions in the judicious utilization of agricultural inputs. This dual approach aims to balance the need for increased agricultural productivity with the imperative of minimizing adverse impacts on human health and the environment.
  • Psychometric Properties of the Community Viability Indicator Instrument
    Rudd, Rick D.; Seibel, Megan M.; Bush, Sarah A. (2023-04-13)
  • Profiles of youth citizenship: A cluster analysis of ethical factors, demographics, and problem-solving disposition
    Bush, Sarah A.; Rudd, Rick D.; Friedel, Curtis R.; Archibald, Thomas G.; Redican, Kerry J. (Mississippi State University Libraries, 2023-12-01)
    Youth have the capacity to drive positive change in their communities through active and engaged citizenship (AEC). Teen-leadership programs provide youth with opportunities to develop the skills necessary to participate as partners in community problem-solving efforts. Situated in relational developmental systems metatheory, this study aimed to examine how cluster membership based upon demographic characteristics, ethical factors, and problem-solving disposition impacted AEC. The findings indicated significant differences between clusters for AEC, civic duty, and civic skills. These differences were predominately observed through membership in long-term or short-term leadership programs, gender, enrollment in honors/AP courses, ethical views, and problem-solving disposition. Youth leadership practitioners should consider avenues for infusing problem-solving and character development in gender inclusive program curriculum to increase likelihood for contributing.
  • Cyberbiosecurity Workforce Preparation: Education at the Convergence of Education at the Convergence of Cybersecurity and Biosecurity
    Adeoye, Samson; Lindberg, Heather; Bagby, B.; Brown, Anne M.; Batarseh, Feras; Kaufman, Eric K. (2024-01)
    Cyberbiosecurity is an emerging field at the convergence of life sciences and the digital world. As technological advances improve operational processes and expose them to vulnerabilities in agriculture and life sciences, cyberbiosecurity has become increasingly important for addressing contemporary concerns. Unfortunately, at this time, educational opportunities for cyberbiosecurity workforce preparation are limited. Stakeholders’ perceptions may help guide cyberbiosecurity workforce preparation efforts and bridge the gap from the classroom to the field. Toward this end, we identified stakeholders in education, private industry, and state agencies in [State] and sought their input through both an online survey and focus groups. Findings suggest limited awareness and understanding of cyberbiosecurity. Results indicate that both formal and non-formal learning components—including short modules and comprehensive standalone courses—are important for cyberbiosecurity education programming. Stakeholders tied potential success of education programming to systems thinking and collaborative designs. Moreover, results reveal insights into concerns at the convergence of information technology (IT) and operational technology (OT), which is central to effective workforce preparation for today’s agriculture and life sciences professionals. Continuous interdisciplinary collaboration and academia-industry partnerships will be critical for developing robust cyberbiosecurity education and securing the future of agriculture.
  • Administrators’ Perspectives on Organizational Environmental Factors Facing 4-H Youth Development
    Elliott-Engel, Jeremy; Westfall-Rudd, Donna M.; Seibel, Megan M.; Kaufman, Eric K.; Radhakrishna, Rama (Elsevier, 2024-01)
    4-H is the largest youth development organization in the United States and is the youth development program of the Land-Grant University’s Cooperative Extension system. A qualitative study of 13 4-H Program Leaders and seven Cooperative Extension Directors was conducted to explore the perspectives Extension Administrators hold about the organizational environmental factors facing the 4-H program. Data were analyzed using a qualitative open coding methodology. Five themes emerged from the study in response to the identified environmental factors: 1) key components of the traditional club model need to be ensured in all programming conducted; 2) the need to develop a club programming matrix to help county-level staff manage the impact and their workload; 3) good partners will expand the 4-H programs’ capacity; 4) increased involvement of first generation youth and families is needed; and 5) intentional marketing and raising awareness of the “new 4-H brand.” Adaptation poses important questions, challenges, and opportunities for the 4-H program. Because administrators represent a national population of Administrators, these insights can inform youth organizations in the United States and internationally.
  • Graduate Students as Leaders and Followers: Effective Practices for Mentoring and Being Mentored
    Kaufman, Eric K.; Richardson, Sydney D.; Stedman, Nicole L. P. (Wiley, 2023-11-27)
    Graduate student development depends heavily upon effective mentoring. The ideal outcome is a scholar and/or professional who can work independently, not simply following in the footsteps and example of their mentor(s). In many instances, the developmental process requires the graduate student to be a mentor to others, whether that be for less experienced scholars (e.g., undergraduate students) or in a reverse mentoring role (e.g., guiding their faculty advisor). Effective mentoring is particularly challenging when the relationship is mediated through virtual engagement, which is the case for many online degree programs. The current article illuminates important considerations and strategies for success when facing these challenges. Particular attention is given to the openness framework, which highlights the importance of being open to change, feedback, action, and accountability.
  • Undefined: In Search for a Definition of Blended Learning in SBAE
    Milliken, D. Brett; Traini, Haley Q.; Stewart, Josh (2023-05-16)
  • Attempts Toward Blended Teaching and Personalized Learning in School-Based Agricultural Education
    Milliken, D. Brett; Traini, Haley Q.; Stewart, Josh (2023-05-17)
    The purpose of this study was to explore school-based agricultural education (SBAE) teacher beliefs about personalized instruction and blended teaching and their experiences with implementing personalized learning within their blended teaching practice. The specific research questions that guided our study were 1) what are SBAE teachers’ beliefs about personalized instruction and blended teaching? and 2) how have they personalized instruction within their blended teaching practice? We utilized a hermeneutic phenomenological research design while relying on theoretical research on teacher beliefs to illuminate the experiences of SBAE teachers in blended classrooms. Participants included five in-service agriculture education teachers representing four states in the United States. These participants were identified by post-secondary agriculture education teacher educators through a state database of SBAE teachers. All self-identified as SBAE teachers that practiced blended teaching. Three themes emerged from data analysis: time, place, pace, and path; empowering students; and reality check. Our findings indicate that the beliefs SBAE teachers hold influence their classroom practices and personalized learning and student choice were important. Recommendations for future research include conducting observational research on personalized instruction in blended settings as well as the impact contextual factors have on the relationship between teachers’ beliefs and practice in blended classrooms.
  • Research Documentation and Data Management for Social Science Research
    Kaufman, Eric K. (2023-10-30)
    Guest lecture for Virginia Tech's ALS 5324: Research Ethics.
  • Promoting Leadership Capacity to Enhance Women’s Access to and Control over Land
    Olowoyo, Olamide; Kaufman, Eric K. (International Leadership Association, 2023-10-13)
    This interactive roundtable discussion invites participants to share views on the need and ways to promote the leadership capacity of women to enhance access to and control over land. The roundtable discussion will be facilitated by scholars with research interests in leadership and gender in agriculture. It will begin by giving a brief overview of leadership capacity development. The overall goal of the discussion is to consider the methods through which women’s leadership capacity can be enhanced. While this targets the agricultural sector, particularly women farmers, knowledge of women’s leadership capacity building from the perspective of leadership practitioners can be applicable to other sectors. Globally, securing land rights in an effective and inclusive manner involves concerted efforts and partnerships between governments, the private sector, and civil society actors at all levels. The objectives of the roundtable are to: allow facilitators and participants to share their views on the importance of promoting the leadership capacity of women, deliberate on ways through which promoting leadership capacity can help improve control over resources, and provide insight into the ways by which women can assume more leadership roles in agriculture. Key Takeaways: (1) Recognize the importance of promoting the leadership capacity of women to enhance access to and control over land. (2) Gain insight into how women farmers can assume more leadership roles in agriculture. (3) Explore options to transfer the knowledge of building women’s capacity to other sectors.
  • Towards Enhancing Leadership Capacity of Women in Agriculture
    Olowoyo, Olamide; Adebayo, Bolanle; Sunderman, Hannah; Kaufman, Eric K. (2023-07-19)
    Increasingly complex societal problems require the collective efforts of all genders to solve. However, women seldom receive the social support necessary to develop leadership identity and capacity despite inherent leadership potential (Ely et al., 2011; Shollen, 2015). Leadership is instrumental in promoting community efforts (Igalla et al., 2020). Hence, women’s leadership capacity should be developed to encourage collective efforts to solve problems, especially in a sector where they are the majority of workers, such as agriculture. The agricultural sector is faced with diverse problems affecting the sector’s productivity. Women are needed to facilitate collective efforts toward solving agricultural problems. Hence, there is a need to increase efforts targeted at women’s leadership capacity development. This roundtable discussion will ask participants to share their views on the importance of developing women’s leadership capacity, the current state of women’s leadership capacity development, challenges to women’s leadership capacity development, and diverse methods for developing capacity through leadership education. Emerging scholars with research interests in women’s leadership development will facilitate the round table discussion. The overall goal of the discussion is to consider the methods through which women’s leadership capacity can be enhanced.
  • Non-Governmental Organizations' Involvement in Youth Leadership Development: The Case of LEAP Africa in Nigeria
    Oyedare, Israel; Kaufman, Eric K. (International Leadership Association, 2023-10-13)
    Youth leadership development has become a critical component of social and organizational investment. Recently, organizations and scholars have taken interest in exploring what inspires and enables youth leadership development within a system, and how this can be sustained. This presentation seeks to explore the role NGOs play in preparing youth for present and future leadership responsibilities. The presentation will glean from the experiences of LEAP Africa, (a Nigerian-based nonprofit organization), to discuss the significant and strategic contributions NGOs have to youth development. The Social Innovation Theory is adopted as a framework for explaining NGOs’ potential for youth leadership development.
  • Advancing Followership Discourse in Theory and Practice
    Kaufman, Eric K.; Oyedare, Israel; Chaleff, Ira (International Leadership Association, 2023-10-13)
    Recently, there have been efforts geared towards advancing the discourse of followership both in the academic and organizational context, as individuals are becoming increasingly aware of the role they play as followers in the achievement of predetermined goals. To ensure that discourses on followership are given a well-deserved scholarly appreciation and recognition, it has become imperative to continue creating this awareness. This workshop will engage participants in both contemporary and historical perspectives on followership. More awareness of followership discourse(s) can help leadership scholars and organizational leaders recognize the importance of integrating followership into leadership education and having followership as a standalone field of study. Using the World Café approach, participants will be taken through the evolution of followership over the decades. Insights from round table discussions will be shared, and ideas for future applications will be developed.
  • Curriculum Design in an Agricultural Education Program in Nigeria: Towards Advancing Career Readiness
    Ajao, Helen; Alegbeleye, D.; Westfall-Rudd, Donna M. (Advancements in Agricultural Development, 2022-01-03)
    This research explores effective curriculum design for higher-ed in preparing agricultural education graduates for Nigeria’s labor market. The continuing professional education program planning theory serves as the framework guiding this study. The study involves a phenomenological inquiry into the conscientious meaning experience of the faculty and alumni in an agricultural education department. A purposful sampling method of 14 participants (four professors and ten alumni) was used to select participants since the study relied on individuals close to the phenomenon. Data was collected using a standardized open-ended questionnaire and the Department’s handbook. Three themes emerged: The Department's curriculum design/development.; Stakeholder’s consultation; and Principles considered while designing the curriculum. Recommendations were made for the Department to continuously review and update the curriculum to reflect the current needs of the industry and students. Lastly, the current study was recommended to be replicated in other main agricultural institutions in Nigeria.
  • The adult-centered teaching strategies for the livestock System resilience with a variety of extension agent workloads’ demands: a case study of Thies and Diourbel Regions, Senegal
    Kane, Ousmane; Badji, Alkaly; Westfall-Rudd, Donna M. (2023-01)
    Senegalese extension services play a crucial role in Senegalese agriculture which is still characterized as family and peasant-based. Extension agents provide technical support and information to breeders. Today, an adaptation to the use of natural resources is necessary because of the degradation of the agro-pastoral ecosystem, hence the need for innovative training and awareness-raising strategies. Therefore, the purpose was the enhancement of the teaching approaches implemented to local breeders in the context of climate change in the Diourbel and Thies regions. The researcher collected qualitative data, including document analysis and in-depth interviews with 12 extension agents. Findings included insight into the training experiences of extension agents in the context of climate change. Besides, the results showed that the program planning is effective and helped to design practical teaching content. In addition, the adult-centered teaching approach is a new concept for the participants. However, the findings demonstrated the need to improve knowledge in teaching and learning innovations for extension agents in natural resource conservations. In sum, they need program planning and continuing professional development programs to be efficient in diffusing the concept to change the mindset and behaviors of breeders.
  • Evaluating Factors Explaining U.S. Consumers’ Behavioral Intentions toward Irradiated Ground Beef
    Parrella, Jean A.; Leggette, Holli R.; Lu, Peng; Wingenbach, Gary; Baker, Matt; Murano, Elsa (MDPI, 2023-08-22)
    Although food irradiation is deemed safe and endorsed by health-related organizations worldwide, consumers are reluctant to accept the technology. Yet, consumer acceptance is critical as food irradiation has significant potential for increasing the safety and availability of food globally. To communicate about food irradiation, science communicators should understand the psychology behind consumers’ decision making related to irradiated foods. Using empirical research, we developed a theoretical model and used structural equation modeling to determine how nine variables affect consumers’ behavioral intentions toward irradiated ground beef. We purchased a national quota sample from Qualtrics and surveyed N = 1102 U.S. consumers. The model explained 60.3% of the variance in consumers’ attitudes toward food irradiation and 55.4% of their behavioral intentions toward irradiated ground beef. Attitude had the largest positive, total effect on consumers’ behavioral intentions, which was followed by subjective social norm and perceived benefit. Perceived risk had the largest negative, total effect on behavioral intentions. Attitude mediated the effect of subjective social norm, perceived benefit, perceived risk, objective knowledge, and food technology neophobia. Environmental concern and health consciousness did not significantly affect behavioral intention. Science communicators should develop messaging strategies that seek to improve consumer acceptance with these factors in mind.
  • A Problem-Solving Theory to Enhance Understanding and Practice of Leadership
    Friedel, Curtis R. (Wiley, 2023-04)
    The focus of the symposium is adaption-innovation (A-I) theory, as it relates to solving problems with cognitive diversity. The intent of the current article is to introduce adaption-innovation theory; its beginning and key elements. The symposium specifically focuses on implications for adaptive leadership, inclusion, wicked problems, and business.
  • DoDEA CIL Instructional Leadership Toolkit
    Kaufman, Eric K.; Sen, Anuradha; Coartney, Jama S.; Anderson, James (2020-07-22)
    These are PDF portfolios of resources provided to the Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) for use by the Centers for Instructional Leadership (CILs) in their efforts to initiate and launch improvement cycles. The dynamic toolkit is designed to help regions, districts, and schools establish, grow, and maintain a culture of inquiry and data use that can inform decisions that will have a positive impact on teaching and learning in a region, district and school. The Toolkit is organized into four major sections. Section 1 of the Toolkit deals with concepts about change and its management to achieve desired outcomes. Section 2 borrows from adult learning theory and focuses on developing the capacity of yourself and others to work effectively in focused collaborations/professional learning communities. Section 3 provides models and skill aids for leading professional learning around facilitative leadership; coaching for learning; and assessing needs, action planning, and performance monitoring for change in practice. Section 4 focuses on data-driven decision making and will deepen your understanding of how a variety of data sources can be used to improve, increase and enhance teaching and learning in the region, district, school and classroom. Each section of this Toolkit has multiple professional learning opportunities designed to build new knowledge or reinforce existing knowledge. The Toolkit can be used by an interested individual, in teams, or school/region wide. Professional learning opportunities may include video clips to view and respond to, articles to read and respond to, case study to analyze, tools to try, templates to complete, checklists, infographics and more.