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  • Semaglutide and Tirzepatide reduce alcohol consumption in individuals with obesity
    Quddos, Fatima; Hubshman, Zachary; Tegge, Allison; Sane, Daniel; Marti, Erin; Kablinger, Anita S.; Gatchalian, Kirstin M.; Kelly, Amber L.; DiFeliceantonio, Alexandra G.; Bickel, Warren K. (Nature Portfolio, 2023)
    Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) contributes significantly to global mortality. GLP-1 (Glucagon-like peptide-1) and GLP-1/GIP (Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide) agonists, FDA-approved for managing type 2 diabetes and obesity, where the former has shown to effectively reduce the consumption of alcohol in animal models but no reports exist on the latter. In this report, we conducted two studies. In the first study, we conducted an analysis of abundant social media texts. Specifically, a machine-learning based attribution mapping of ~ 68,250 posts related to GLP-1 or GLP-1/GIP agonists on the Reddit platform. Secondly, we recruited participants (n = 153; current alcohol drinkers; BMI ≥ 30) who self-reported either taking Semaglutide (GLP-1 agonist), Tirzepatide (the GLP-1/GIP combination) for ≥ 30 days or, as a control group; no medication to manage diabetes or weight loss for a within and between subject remote study. In the social media study, we report 8 major themes including effects of medications (30%); diabetes (21%); and Weight loss and obesity (19%). Among the alcohol-related posts (n = 1580), 71% were identified as craving reduction, decreased desire to drink, and other negative effects. In the remote study, we observe a significantly lower self-reported intake of alcohol, drinks per drinking episode, binge drinking odds, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores, and stimulating, and sedative effects in the Semaglutide or Tirzepatide group when compared to prior to starting medication timepoint (within-subjects) and the control group (between-subjects). In summary, we provide initial real-world evidence of reduced alcohol consumption in people with obesity taking Semaglutide or Tirzepatide medications, suggesting potential efficacy for treatment in AUD comorbid with obesity.
  • Hyper-Progressive Single Shot Detector (HPSSD) Algorithm for Door Panel Type-B Detection
    Yuan, Hao; Okpor, Samuel Ita; Kong, Xiao; Erukainure, Frank Efe; Wilson, Samuel Britwum (IEEE, 2023-09)
    In an automobile, the door panel type-B constitutes the interior compartment of the door, primarily composed of screws and white installations forming its structural framework. However, automated manufacturing and maintenance procedures often struggle to accurately detect these components due to their pronounced resemblance to other elements on the panel. Computer vision techniques present a viable solution to this challenge. In this paper, we propose the Hyper-Progressive Single Shot Detector (HPSSD), an object detection algorithm designed to address the aforementioned challenge. Our proposed HPSSD builds on the Single Shot Detector (SSD) algorithm and introduces several enhancements to improve its detection capabilities. The first modification involves replacing the VGG-16 backbone with a ResNet-50 module. Furthermore, we incorporated the Residual Convolutional Block Attention Mechanism (RCBAM) to boost the algorithm’s functionality. To enlarge the receptive fields of each pixel–an essential step for enhancing detection accuracy–we executed multi-dilated convolutions. In the final stage of our development process, we embedded a three-stage progressive attention mechanism (PAM). The PAM is instrumental in generating refined feature maps, which serve as the foundation for precise object detection on the door panel dataset comprising 1200 images. After running 50k iterations on the door panel dataset, the HPSSD displayed a promising mean average precision of 98.2% at a speed of 21 frames per second (FPS). Our results suggest that the HPSSD, with its ability to deliver real-time, accurate detection, is an ideal tool for improving the quality inspection of door panels in smart factories.
  • Human continuous glucose monitors for measurement of glucose in dairy cows
    Byrd, M.K.H.; Arneson, A.G.; Soffa, D.R.; Stewart, J.W.; Rhoads, Michelle L. (Elsevier, 2022)
    The purpose of this study was to determine whether interstitial glucose measurements collected by sensors designed for humans could replace blood-based glucose measurements in dairy cows. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 21) were fit with indwelling jugular catheters, as well as FreeStyle Libre (FSL; Abbott) or Dexcom G6 (DexCom Inc.) interstitial glucose monitors secured either near their ears or on their upper rear legs. Functional longevity of the sensors was greatest for those sensors secured near the ear. Blood glucose concentrations were most closely correlated with interstitial measurements from the FSL ear (r = 0.82) and the Dexcom G6 ear (r = 0.71), but accuracy was low. Both ear sensors detected an increase in glucose concentrations following a bolus dose but neither produced results exactly matching the blood glucose measurements. The results of this work indicate that both sensors can detect large changes in glucose, but neither is currently capable of replacing blood-based glucose measurements in dairy cows.
  • Perceived services and disservices of natural treatment systems for urban stormwater: Insight from the next generation of designers
    Rippy, Megan A.; Pierce, Gregory; Feldman, David; Winfrey, Brandon; Mehring, Andrew S.; Holden, Patricia A.; Ambrose, Richard; Levin, Lisa A. (Wiley, 2022)
    1. Natural treatment systems (NTS) for stormwater have the potential to provide a myriad of ecosystem services to society. Realizing this potential requires active collaboration among engineers, ecologists and landscape planners and begins with a paradigm shift in communication whereby these groups are made aware of each other's perceptions about NTS and the presence of knowledge gaps that their respective disciplines can bridge. 2. Here we participate in the first part of what we hope will be a reciprocal exchange: presenting results from a landscape perceptions survey to urban planners, ecologists and landscape architects that illustrates how the next generation of engineers perceives NTS relative to other landscape features, and the implications of those perceptions for future infrastructure development. 3. Our results suggest that although lawns, gardens and native ecosystems were perceived as multifunctional, providing characteristic bundles of services/disservices, perceptions of NTS were more variable (i.e. there was no social norm for their perception). 4. Environmental worldviews, knowledge, attitudes about ecosystem services and demographics were all significant drivers of perceived services. However, students had difficulty identifying NTS correctly, and factual knowledge about NTS did not help students associate NTS with typical design services like flood reduction more than features not designed for those purposes, such as lawns. This suggests that engineering students lack familiarity with the outward appearance of NTS and have difficulty placing NTS services into a broader landscape context. 5. Expertise from urban planning and ecology could help bridge these knowledge gaps, improving the capacity of tomorrow's engineers to co-design NTS to meet diverse community needs.
  • Effects of a direct fed microbial (DFM) on broiler chickens exposed to acute and chronic cyclic heat stress in two consecutive experiments
    Sarsour, A.H.; Koltes, D.A.; Kim, E.J.; Persia, Michael E. (Elsevier, 2022)
    Two consecutive 35 d experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of a multistrain DFM fed continuously to broiler chickens exposed to HS from 28 to 35 d on broiler performance, body composition, ileal digestibility, and intestinal permeability using serum Fluorescein Isothiocyanate Dextran (FITC-d) concentration. The treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial with temperature: Elevated (HS: 33 ± 2°C for 6 h and 27.7°C for the remaining 18 h from 28 to 35 days of age) and Thermoneutral (TN: 22 to 24°C over the entire 24-h day from 28 to 35 days of age) and diet: cornsoybean meal based with and without DFM (3-strain Bacillus; Enviva PRO) fed over the entire 35-d period as the two factors. Experimental diets were formulated to meet all nutrient recommendations based on breed standards using a starter (0−10 d), grower (10−21 d), and finisher (21−35 d) period. For each of the 2 experiments, 648 Ross 708 broiler chicks were allotted among the treatments with 9 replicate pens of 18 broilers. Data were analyzed as a 2 × 2 factorial within each experiment in JMP 14. In both experiments, cloacal temperatures were increased (P ≤ 0.05) in the broilers subjected to the HS treatment at both 28 d (acute) and 35 d (chronic). Supplementing birds with DFM reduced cloacal temperatures in the Experiment 1 at 28 d, but not at the other time periods. The HS treatment reduced body weight gain and lean tissue accretion from 0 to 35 d in both experiments (P ≤ 0.05). In Experiment 2, when the litter was reused BWG was increased by 36 g/bird with supplementation of DFM (P ≤ 0.05). Ileal digestibility at 28 d (2 h post HS) was improved with DFM supplementation in both experiments (P ≤ 0.05). Serum FITC-d increased with HS at both 28 and 35 d. Serum FITC-d was generally decreased with DFM at 28 d but the response was inconsistent at 35 d. Overall, the results suggest that HS reduced broiler performance and DFM treatment improved intestinal permeability and nutrient digestibility responses to HS in both experiments but did not improve performance until built up litter was used in Experiment 2.
  • Painful, bleeding fingertip papule
    Gay, Jane; Simpson, Sarah; Rush, Patrick; Holliday, Alex (Elsevier, 2022)
    A 66-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of a painful and bleeding fingertip papule that had temporarily improved after silver nitrate application. Pertinent history included stage IV clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) treated with radical nephrectomy and adjuvant ipilimumab/nivolumab. Recent imaging confirmed continued regression of metastases, and the patient was clinically doing well. Examination demonstrated a violaceous and hyperkeratotic papule. Biopsy revealed a dermally based, lobulated, eosinophilic epithelioid cell population with extravasated red blood cells. Immunohistochemistry was negative for CD31, CK7, and CK20 and positive for AE1/AE3, AMACR, PAX8, and CD10 within the epithelioid cell population.
  • A Case of Ovarian Dysplasia and a Vaginal Fibroleiomyoma in a Young Golden Retriever
    McCarter, Samantha; Sponenberg, D. Phillip; Saunders, Geoffrey; Cecere, Julie (Frontiers, 2021-12-24)
    This case demonstrates a unique ovarian congenital anomaly that likely contributed to the development of a rare fibroleiomyoma in the cranial vagina of a young bitch. A 13 month old intact female Golden Retriever presented to the veterinary teaching hospital for urinary incontinence, hematuria, and persistent vaginal discharge. Physical examination revealed a mucopurulent serosanguinous malodorous vulvar discharge, and after further diagnostics was reclassified as persistent estrus. Abdominal palpation and ultrasound revealed uterine thickening and poorly visualized ovaries. The reproductive tract was removed during an ovariohysterectomy, revealing small ovaries and a white anterior vaginal mass. Histopathology revealed dysplastic ovaries with hyperplastic granulosa cells and a benign vaginal fibroleiomyoma. These morphologic changes are consistent with elevated estrogen levels. It was thus concluded that her persistent estrus and the fibroleiomyoma were both secondary to persistent estrogen production by the hyperplastic granulosa cells.
  • Phenotypic Drift in Lupus-Prone MRL/lpr Mice: Potential Roles of MicroRNAs and Gut Microbiota
    Cabana-Puig, Xavier; Bond, Jacob M.; Wang, Zhuang; Dai, Rujuan; Lu, Ran; Lin, Amy; Oakes, Vanessa; Rizzo, Amy; Swartout, Brianna; Abdelhamid, Leila; Mao, Jiangdi; Prakash, Meeta; Sangmeister, Constanza; Cheung, Nathaniel; Cowan, Catharine; Reilly, Christopher M.; Sun, Sha; Ahmed, S. Ansar; Luo, Xin M. (American Association of Immunologists, 2022)
    MRL/lpr mice have been extensively used as a murine model of lupus. Disease progression in MRL/lpr mice can differ among animal facilities, suggesting a role for environmental factors.We noted a phenotypic drift of our in-house colony, which was the progeny of mice obtained from The Jackson Laboratory (JAX; stocking number 000485), that involved attenuated glomerulonephritis, increased splenomegaly, and reduced lymphadenopathy. To validate our in-house mice as a model of lupus, we compared these mice with those newly obtained from JAX, which were confirmed to be genetically identical to our in-house mice. Surprisingly, the new JAX mice exhibited a similar phenotypic drift, most notably the attenuation of glomerulonephritis. Interestingly, our in-house colony differed from JAX mice in body weight and kidney size (both sexes), as well as in splenic size, germinal center formation, and level of anti-dsDNA auto-IgG in the circulation (male only). In addition, we noted differential expression of microRNA (miR)-21 and miR-183 that might explain the splenic differences in males. Furthermore, the composition of gut microbiota was different between in-house and new JAX mice at early time points, which might explain some of the renal differences (e.g., kidney size). However, we could not identify the reason for attenuated glomerulonephritis, a shared phenotypic drift between the two colonies. It is likely that this was due to certain changes of environmental factors present in both JAX and our facilities. Taken together, these results suggest a significant phenotypic drift in MRL/lpr mice in both colonies that may require strain recovery from cryopreservation.
  • Decoding the Brain’s Surface to Track Deeper Activity
    Tenzer, Mark L.; Lisinsk, Jonathan M.; LaConte, Stephen M. (Frontiers Media, 2022-03-17)
    Neural activity can be readily and non-invasively recorded from the scalp using electromagnetic and optical signals, but unfortunately all scalp-based techniques have depth-dependent sensitivities. We hypothesize, though, that the cortex’s connectivity with the rest of the brain could serve to construct proxy signals of deeper brain activity. For example, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-derived models that link surface connectivity to deeper regions could subsequently extend the depth capabilities of other modalities. Thus, as a first step toward this goal, this study examines whether or not surface-limited support vector regression of resting-state fMRI can indeed track deeper regions and distributed networks in independent data. Our results demonstrate that depth-limited fMRI signals can in fact be calibrated to report ongoing activity of deeper brain structures. Although much future work remains to be done, the present study suggests that scalp recordings have the potential to ultimately overcome their intrinsic physical limitations by utilizing the multivariate information exchanged between the surface and the rest of the brain.
  • Inclusion of Clinicians in the Development and Evaluation of Clinical Artificial Intelligence Tools: A Systematic Literature Review
    Jesso, Stephanie Tulk; Kelliher, Aisling; Sanghavi, Harsh; Martin, Thomas; Parker, Sarah H. (Frontiers, 2022-04-07)
    The application of machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) in healthcare domains has received much attention in recent years, yet significant questions remain about how these new tools integrate into frontline user workflow, and how their design will impact implementation. Lack of acceptance among clinicians is a major barrier to the translation of healthcare innovations into clinical practice. In this systematic review, we examine when and how clinicians are consulted about their needs and desires for clinical AI tools. Forty-five articles met criteria for inclusion, of which 24 were considered design studies. The design studies used a variety of methods to solicit and gather user feedback, with interviews, surveys, and user evaluations. Our findings show that tool designers consult clinicians at various but inconsistent points during the design process, and most typically at later stages in the design cycle (82%, 19/24 design studies). We also observed a smaller amount of studies adopting a human-centered approach and where clinician input was solicited throughout the design process (22%, 5/24). A third (15/45) of all studies reported on clinician trust in clinical AI algorithms and tools. The surveyed articles did not universally report validation against the “gold standard” of clinical expertise or provide detailed descriptions of the algorithms or computational methods used in their work. To realize the full potential of AI tools within healthcare settings, our review suggests there are opportunities to more thoroughly integrate frontline users’ needs and feedback in the design process.
  • Student Teachers’ Perceptions of Motivation, Independence, and Supervision Preferences: An Exploratory Study
    Ferand, N.; Coleman, B.; Bunch, J. (Advancements in Agricultural Development, Inc., 2022)
    The student teaching experience is one of the most impactful capstone experiences for the preparation of preservice teachers. The supervisor, either a cooperating teacher or university supervisor, plays a critically important role in the student teaching experience. The purpose of this study was to explore preservice teachers' perceived motivation and independence throughout their student teaching experience. It is recommended that early in the student teaching experience, a directive supervision style should be utilized. Then, as motivation starts to decline in the middle of the student teaching experience, the focus of supervision should shift to providing moral support and encouraging commitment to the profession of teaching. Recommendations for future research include replication of this study with future cohorts of student teachers across multiple institutions so data trends can be analyzed longitudinally. Additionally, it is recommended that future iterations of this study should administer a post-then version of the quantitative plotting instrument to control response shift bias.
  • Curriculum Design in an Agricultural Education Program in Nigeria: Towards Advancing Career Readiness
    Ajao, H.; Alegbeleye, I.D.; Westfall-Rudd, Donna M. (Advancements in Agricultural Development, Inc., 2022)
    This research explores the effective curriculum design for higher-ed in preparing agricultural education graduates for Nigeria’s labor market. The continuing professional education program planning theory serves as the framework guiding this study. The study involves a phenomenological inquiry into the conscientious meaning experience of the faculty and alumni in an agricultural education department. A purposeful sampling method of 14 participants (four professors and 10 alumni) was used to select participants since the study relied on individuals close to the phenomenon. Data was collected using a standardized open-ended questionnaire and the Department’s handbook. Three themes emerged: The Department's curriculum design/development; Stakeholder’s consultation; and Principles considered while designing the curriculum. Recommendations were made for the Department to continuously review and update the curriculum to reflect the current needs of the industry and students. Lastly, the current study was recommended to be replicated in other main agricultural institutions in Nigeria.
  • Effects of sulfur amino acid supplementation on broiler chickens exposed to acute and chronic cyclic heat stress
    Sarsour, A.H.; Persia, Michael E. (Elsevier, 2022)
    Chronic heat stress can result in oxidative damage from increased reactive oxygen species. One proposed method to alleviate the chronic effects of HS is the supplementation of sulfur amino acids (SAA) which can be metabolized to glutathione, an important antioxidant. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of dietary SAA content on broiler chickens exposed to HS from 28 to 35 d on broiler performance, body temperature, intestinal permeability, and oxidative status. Four experimental treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial consisting of HS (6 h at 33.3°C followed by 18 h at 27.8°C from 28 to 35 d of age) and Thermoneutral (TN- 22.2°C continuously from 28 to 35 d) and 2 dietary concentrations of SAA formulated at 100% (0.95, 0.87, and 0.80% for starter, grower, and finisher diets) or 130% SAA (1.24, 1.13, and 1.04% for starter, grower, and finisher diets). A total of 648-dayold, male Ross 708 chicks were placed in 36 pens with 18 chicks/pen and 9 replicates per treatment. Data were analyzed as a 2 £ 2 factorial in JMP 14 (P ≤ 0.05). No interaction effects were observed on broiler live performance (P > 0.05). As expected, HS reduced BWG by 92 g and increased FCR by 11 points from 28 to 35 d of age compared to TN, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). The supplementation of SAA had no effect on live performance (P > 0.05). Cloacal temperatures were increased by 1.7, 1.4, and 1.2°C with HS at 28, 31, and 35 d compared to TN, respectively (P ≤ 0.05) and dietary SAA did not alter cloacal temperatures. At 28 d of age, supplementation of SAA to birds exposed to HS interacted as serum FITC-dextran (an indicator of intestinal permeability) was reduced to that of the TN group (P ≤ 0.05). The interaction was lost at 31 d, but HS still increased intestinal permeability (P ≤ 0.05). By 35 d, broilers were able to adapt to the HS conditions and intestinal permeability was unaffected (P > 0.05). Potential oxidative damage was reduced by increased SAA supplementation as indicated by an improvement in the reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio of 5 and 45% at 28 (P = 0.08) and 35 d (P ≤ 0.05). These data suggest that intestinal permeability is compromised initially and to at least three d of heat exposure before the bird can adjust. However, oxidative damage in the liver of broilers exposed to HS is more chronic, building over the entire 7 d HS period and increased dietary SAA might have some protective effects on both broiler intestinal permeability and oxidative stress responses to HS.
  • A Mini-Review of Pharmacological and Psychosocial Interventions for Reducing Irritability Among Youth With ADHD
    Breaux, Rosanna; Dunn, Nicholas C.; Swanson, Courtney S.; Larkin, Emma; Waxmonsky, James; Baweja, Raman (Frontiers Media, 2022-02-14)
    Approximately a third of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience significant irritability; despite this, no study has reviewed whether interventions for youth with ADHD can improve irritability. This mini review sought to address this gap in the literature by discussing existing pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for irritability among children and adolescents with ADHD. A literature search was conducted in April 2021, with a total of 12 intervention articles identified (six pharmacological, one psychosocial, five combined). Studies were excluded if they did not involve an intervention, a measure of irritability, or the population was not youth with ADHD. Of these articles, two were with an ADHD only sample; seven included ADHD with comorbid disruptive behavior, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), or severe mood dysregulation (SMD); and three included ADHD with comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Findings suggest that central nervous system stimulants used alone or in combination with behavior therapy are effective at reducing irritability in youth with ADHD only or comorbid ADHD and DMDD/SMD. Less evidence was found for the efficacy of guanfacine and atomoxetine for youth with ADHD only or comorbid ADHD and ASD. Parent training alone or in combination with atomoxetine was found to be effective at reducing irritability in youth with comorbid ADHD and ASD. Future research assessing the efficacy of other psychosocial interventions, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy is necessary, as are randomized trials assessing intervention sequencing and intensity among youth with ADHD. Researchers are advised to utilize well-validated measures of irritability in future research.
  • Robust model reference adaptive controller for atmospheric plasma spray process
    Guduri, B.; Batra, R.C. (SN Applied Sciences, 2022-04-01)
    We add the σ-modification and the low-frequency learning to the model reference adaptive controller (MRAC) (Guduri et al. in SN Appl Sci 3:1–21, 2021) to make it robust in the presence of two simultaneous bounded disturbances and maintain consistent mean particles’ temperature and velocity collectively called mean particles’ states (MPSs) when they impact the substrate to be coated. The MPSs affect the coating quality. Even though results are applicable to several coating processes, we consider an atmospheric plasma spray process (APSP). It is shown that the proposed controller can quickly adopt to disturbances in the average injection velocity of powder particles and in the arc voltage to change the input current, and the argon and the hydrogen flow rates to maintain constant values of the MPSs. The effects of the parameter values in the MRAC, the MRAC with σ-modification (R-MRAC), and the R-MRAC with low-frequency learning (MR-MRAC) schemes on tracking error convergence, steady-state tracking error, disturbance rejection and the presence of overshoot have been studied. The numerical experiments suggest that 2 ≤ 𝛄 ≤ 20, 10 ≤ σ ≤ 100, and 20 ≤ λ ≤ 80 for the MR-MRAC provide fast adaptation, no overshoot, and low tracking error in the controlled response. The parameter 𝜆 > 0 suppresses high-frequency oscillations in the closed-loop control system, and 𝛄 serves to tune the controller gains. The control scheme has been tested using the software, LAVA-P, that simulates well an APSP.
  • Sino-orbital osteochondroma with malignant transformation to osteosarcoma
    Vaidya, Parth R.; Weber, Peter J.; Farrar, Joshua D.; Jarrett, Jr., Robert W.; Ramey, Nicholas A. (Elsevier, 2022-03-15)
    Purpose: Osteosarcoma is an aggressive malignant osteogenic tumor that commonly arises in long bones of pediatric populations. Primary osteosarcomas of the head and neck are rare, comprising less than 0.5% of malignancies in this region, usually affecting the mandible or maxilla. Here we present an extraordinary case of a rare benign osteochondroma of the ethmoid sinus and bilateral orbits evolving to an intermediate grade osteosarcoma. Observations: An 80-year-old woman with a history of right orbital tumor resection 20 years ago presented to our clinic with right eye proptosis and palpable bony prominence of the right orbit and nasal bridge. Partial resection demonstrated sino-orbital osteochondroma. Relapse a year later prompted repeat partial resection with unchanged histology. The patient was followed clinically until an abrupt relapse four years after initial presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large bony mass involving the right orbit, ethmoid and frontal sinuses, and anterior cranial fossa. Repeat debulking confirmed transformation to intermediate grade osteosarcoma. Conclusions: Osteochondroma is an extremely rare tumor in the orbit with only three cases previously reported. This patient is the first known case of benign osteochondroma of the orbit undergoing malignant transformation to osteosarcoma. Rapid progression of orbital osteochondroma should raise the suspicion of malignant transformation to osteosarcoma and prompt biopsy. Our patient subsequently underwent palliative radiation treatment and is stable with no gross progression.
  • Flow visualization data from experiments with an oscillating circular cylinder in a gravity-driven soap film
    Masroor, Emad; Yang, Wenchao; Stremler, Mark A. (Elsevier, 2022-01-19)
    This article contains flow visualization data from experiments conducted in an inclined gravity-driven soap film intersected by a circular cylinder undergoing controlled transverse oscillations at a Reynolds number of Re ≈235. The dimensionless frequency and amplitude of cylinder oscillation were varied systematically over the ranges 0.2 < f* < 1.8 and 0.1 < A* < 1.3. A high-speed camera was used to capture the interference fringe patterns reflected from the soap film. These videos show the structure of the wake behind the cylinder, including the initial formation of vortices and the extended ‘vortex street’. Several wake patterns were identified, including the classic 2S, P+S, 2P, and 2T patterns, which are discussed in detail in the accompanying research article titled “The wake of a transversely oscillating circular cylinder in a flowing soap film at low Reynolds number”. The videos presented in this article can be accessed through the Virginia Tech University Libraries’ Repository at
  • Mindfulness and Understanding of Self-Care for Leaders of Extension: Promoting Well-Being for Health Educators and Their Clients
    Dysart, Anna; Harden, Samantha M. (Frontiers, 2022-05-13)
    Background: Mindfulness and self-care, practiced through a variety of methods like meditation and exercise, can improve overall sense of holistic well-being (i.e., flourishing). Increasing mindfulness and self-care may lead to increased flourishing and job satisfaction among the nation-wide Cooperative Extension system delivery personnel (agents) through a theory-based online program and an extended experiential program. Methods: Cooperative Extension agents from two states were invited to participate in MUSCLE via statewide listservs. Participants were invited to attend sessions and complete competency checks and between-session assignments each week. The study was conducted using Zoom. Pre- and post- program surveys included validated scales for flourishing and physical activity status. Due to high demand for mindfulness programing during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, experiential “Mindful Meet-up” 30-minute sessions were held on Zoom. Dissemination and implementation of the two differing interventions (i.e., MUSCLE and Mindful Meet-ups) were examined. Results: MUSCLE (more intensive program with assignments and competency checks) had lower reach, and did not show statistically increased flourishing or physical activity. Mindful Meet-ups had higher attendance and proportional reach during the beginning of the pandemic, but no practical measure of flourishing or physical activity behaviors. Unsolicited qualitative feedback was encouraging because the interventions were well-received and participants felt as though they were more mindful. Conclusions: While agents anecdotally reported personal improvements, capturing data on outcomes was challenging. Complementing outcome data with implementation and dissemination outcomes allowed for a richer picture to inform intervention decision-making (i.e., offering the same or new programming depending on participant needs).
  • Factors that affect migratory Western Atlantic red knots (Calidris canutus rufa) and their prey during spring staging on Virginia’s barrier islands
    Heller, Erin L.; Karpanty, Sarah M.; Cohen, Jonahan B.; Catlin, Daniel H.; Ritter, Sharon J.; Truitt, Barry R.; Fraser, James D. (PLOS, 2022-07-01)
    Understanding factors that influence a species’ distribution and abundance across the annual cycle is required for range-wide conservation. Thousands of imperiled red knots (Calidris cantus rufa) stop on Virginia’s barrier islands each year to replenish fat during spring migration. We investigated the variation in red knot presence and flock size, the effects of prey on this variation, and factors influencing prey abundance on Virginia’s barrier islands. We counted red knots and collected potential prey samples at randomly selected sites from 2007–2018 during a two-week period during early and peak migration. Core samples contained crustaceans (Orders Amphipoda and Calanoida), blue mussels (Mytilus edulis), coquina clams (Donax variabilis), and miscellaneous prey (horseshoe crab eggs (Limulus polyphemus), angel wing clams (Cyrtopleura costata), and other organisms (e.g., insect larvae, snails, worms)). Estimated red knot peak counts in Virginia during 21–27 May were highest in 2012 (11,959) and lowest in 2014 (2,857; 12-year peak migration x̄ = 7,175, SD = 2,869). Red knot and prey numbers varied across sampling periods and substrates (i.e., peat and sand). Red knots generally used sites with more prey. Miscellaneous prey (x̄ = 2401.00/m², SE = 169.16) influenced red knot presence at a site early in migration, when we only sampled on peat banks. Coquina clams (x̄ = 1383.54/m², SE = 125.32) and blue mussels (x̄ = 777.91/m², SE = 259.31) affected red knot presence at a site during peak migration, when we sampled both substrates. Few relationships between prey and red knot flock size existed, suggesting that other unmeasured factors determined red knot numbers at occupied sites. Tide and mean daily water temperature affected prey abundance. Maximizing the diversity, availability, and abundance of prey for red knots on barrier islands requires management that encourages the presence of both sand and peat bank intertidal habitats.
  • Chinese Students’ Perceptions of the Motivational Climate in College English Courses: Relationships Between Course Perceptions, Engagement, and Achievement
    Li, Ming; Jones, Brett D.; Williams, Thomas O.; Guo, Yingjian (Frontiers Media, 2022-05-23)
    Effective teachers create a motivational climate that engages students in course activities in ways that lead to increased learning and achievement. Although researchers have identified motivational climate variables that are associated with students’ engagement and achievement, less is known about how these variables are related in different courses and cultures. The purpose of the two studies presented in this paper was to contribute to this research literature by examining these associations within the context of college English courses in two Chinese universities. Specifically, we investigated the relationships between students’ perceptions of the motivational climate (i.e., perceptions of empowerment/autonomy, usefulness, success, interest, and caring), cognitive and behavioral engagement, and achievement. This is the first study to examine the connections between all of these variables in one path model in college English courses in China. We administered surveys at two different Chinese universities (n = 332 and 259) and used regression and path analysis to examine the relationships among the variables. We demonstrated that (a) students’ perceptions of the motivational climate were related to their cognitive engagement, (b) cognitive engagement was related to their behavioral engagement, and (c) behavioral engagement predicted their achievement. These findings are consistent with and extend the growing body of literature on motivational climate and engagement, and they highlight the importance of some motivational climate perceptions over others as significant predictors of cognitive engagement. We conclude that effective English language teachers in China do the following: help students to believe that they can be successful, trigger and maintain students’ interest, and empower students by providing them with choices in activities and assignments.