Scholarly Works, Psychology

Permanent URI for this collection

Research articles, presentations, and other scholarship

Browse

Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 182
  • #InspireInclusion: Addressing the Undue Service Burden Placed on Women Faculty in Psychology
    Breaux, Rosanna (The Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 2024-03-08)
  • Teleoperator-Robot-Human Interaction in Manufacturing: Perspectives from Industry, Robot Manufacturers, and Researchers
    Kim, Sunwook; Hernandez, Ivan; Nussbaum, Maury A.; Lim, Sol (Informa, 2024-02-08)
    OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS: Industrial robots have become an important aspect in modern industry. In the context of human-robot collaboration, enabling teleoperated robots to work in close proximity to local/onsite humans can provide new opportunities to improve human engagement in a distributed workplace. Interviews with industry stakeholders highlighted several potential benefits of such teleoperator-robot-human collaboration (tRHC), including the application of tRHC to tasks requiring both expertise and manual dexterity (e.g., maintenance and highly skilled tasks in sectors including construction, manufacturing, and healthcare), as well as opportunities to expand job accessibility for individuals with disabilities and older individuals. However, interviewees also indicated potential challenges of tRHC, particularly related to human perception (e.g., perceiving remote environments), safety, and trust. Given these challenges, and the current limited information on the practical value and implementation of tRHC, we propose several future research directions, with a focus on human factors and ergonomics, to help realize the potential benefits of tRHC.
  • Examining the role of urgency in predicting binge size in bulimia nervosa
    Davis, Heather A.; Smith, Gregory T. (Frontiers, 2023-05-31)
    Greater binge size within bulimia nervosa is associated with elevated distress and impairment. Theoretical models posit that emotion dysregulation predicts binge eating, but little research has investigated the potential for dispositional traits that reflect difficulty in emotion regulation to predict binge size among women with bulimia nervosa. Research supports that negative urgency, the tendency to act rashly when feeling distressed, is associated with binge eating behavior among individuals with bulimia nervosa. Relatively fewer studies have explored associations between binge eating and positive urgency, the tendency to act rashly when feeling extreme positive affect. The urgency traits may predict greater binge size within bulimia nervosa. The current study sought to examine negative urgency and positive urgency as predictors of test meal intake in a sample of 50 women, n = 21 with bulimia nervosa and n = 29 healthy controls. Dispositional levels of positive urgency, negative urgency, positive affect, and negative affect were measured prior to a laboratory binge eating paradigm. Participants in the bulimia nervosa group scored higher on negative urgency, positive urgency, and negative affect than participants in the control group. Across participants, lower levels of negative affect were associated with greater test meal intake. Elevated levels of positive urgency predicted significantly greater test meal intake, but only for participants with bulimia nervosa. No other dispositional traits predicted test meal intake when the interaction of positive urgency and group was included in the model. Findings suggest positive urgency is an underappreciated, but potentially important, risk factor for greater binge size in bulimia nervosa.
  • Multisensory integration and maternal sensitivity are related to each other and predictive of expressive vocabulary in 24-month-olds
    Bruce, Madeleine; Panneton, Robin K.; Taylor, Caroline (Elsevier, 2021-10-05)
    Multisensory integration (MSI) is the ability to combine temporally synchronous, amodally specified sensory information to create rich, coordinated perceptual experiences. In early development, attention is directed toward such information in both social contexts (e.g., human speakers) and nonsocial contexts (e.g., multimodal toys). Parenting behaviors may support and sculpt multisensory integration by providing children with opportunities to experience amodally specified information (e.g., contingent face-to-face interactions). This study examined (a) whether 24-month-olds’ MSI abilities differed as a function of context (social or nonsocial) and competition for attention (low or high), (b) whether MSI predicted expressive vocabulary, and (c) whether maternal sensitivity (MS) was related to both MSI and language. A total of 32 24-month-olds were tested in the Multisensory Attention Assessment Protocol, an audiovisual task that presents laterally positioned social/nonsocial events with and without a central distractor. Their mothers completed the MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventories and participated in a free-play period with their children for MS coding. Results showed MSI in both social and nonsocial conditions (i.e., toddlers paid more attention to the “match”), but only the ability to maintain attention to the social match was related to toddlers’ expressive vocabulary. In addition, MS was positively correlated with toddlers’ expressive language and social MSI performance. Taken together, the pattern of results shows important relations between emerging integration abilities and parenting behavior as well as the ability of both factors to positively influence word learning during early toddlerhood.
  • A collection of 157 individual neuromelanin-sensitive images accompanied by non-linear neuromelanin-sensitive atlas and a probabilistic locus coeruleus atlas
    Lee, Tae-Ho; Kim, Sun Hyung; Neal, Joshua; Katz, Benjamin; Kim, Il Hwan (2024-02)
    The current dataset aims to support and enhance the research reliability of neuromelanin regions in the brain- stem, such as locus coeruleus (LC), by offering raw neuromelanin-sensitive images. The dataset includes raw neuromelanin-sensitive images from 157 healthy individuals (8–64 years old). In addition, leveraging individual neuromelanin-sensitive images, a non-linear neuromelanin- sensitive atlas, generated through an iterative warping pro- cess, is included to tackle the common challenge of a limited field of view in neuromelanin-sensitive images. Finally, the dataset encompasses a probabilistic LC atlas generated through a majority voting approach with pre-existing multiple atlas-based segmentations. This process entails warping pre-existing atlases onto individual spaces and identifying voxels with a majority consensus of over 50 % across the atlases. This LC probabilistic atlas can minimize uncertainty variance associated with choosing a specific single atlas.
  • Piloting a one-day parent-only intervention in the treatment of youth with anxiety disorders: child and family-level outcomes
    Cobham, Vanessa E.; Radtke, Sarah R.; Hawkins, Ingrid; Jordan, Michele; Ali, Nasriah R.; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Sanders, Matthew R. (2024-01-13)
    Objective: Parent-only cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions have promise for youth with anxiety disorders. Fear-Less Triple P (FLTP) is one such intervention that has been found comparable to child-focused CBT. Although traditionally administered in six sessions, a one-day workshop format of FLTP was developed to improve accessibility. The current study compared the effectiveness of the six-session and one-day workshop formats. Method: Seventy-three youth (mean age, 8.4 years; 74% male) were randomized to traditional FLTP (6-week group) or the one-day workshop format. Anxiety diagnostic status, self- and parent-reported anxiety symptoms scores, independent evaluator-rated improvement, treatment satisfaction, and measures of family functioning were included to assess treatment outcome. Data were collected prior to treatment, and 1-week, 6-months, and 12-months following treatment. Results: Both conditions resulted in significant improvement in child anxiety symptom scores per parent report (on both questionnaire and diagnostic interview measures). Furthermore, significant decreases in sibling anxiety were observed in both treatment conditions. There were no statistically significant differences between conditions on any outcome measure. Conclusions: Results of this study add to the growing evidence that brief, low-intensity, parent-only interventions can effectively target child psychopathology. These brief interventions are ideal for families for whom the resources and time required to commit to a standard multi-week intervention are prohibitive.
  • 5-year follow-up of adolescents with social anxiety disorder: Current functioning during COVID-19
    Carlton, Corinne N.; Garcia, Katelyn M.; Honaker, Makayla; Richey, John A.; Ollendick, Thomas H. (Elsevier, 2023-04)
    The present study followed-up adolescents with social anxiety disorder (SAD) during the COVID-19 pandemic, approximately 5-years following their participation in an Attention Bias Modification Training (ABMT) program (Ollendick et al., 2019). The current study aimed to evaluate current functioning and quality of life (QoL) during the emerging adulthood period. Participants included 27 young adults who completed a randomized controlled trial of ABMT and were available for follow-up. Participants filled out self-report measures of QoL and functioning and underwent a clinical interview to assess current severity of social anxiety. Clinician-rated symptoms of SAD significantly decreased from post-treatment to 5-year follow-up. Additionally, results demonstrated that social anxiety severity was significantly related to poorer self-reported physical and psychological health as well as poorer functioning with regard to social distancing fears during COVID-19. Lastly, when evaluating change in symptoms over time, increases in social anxiety severity over a 5-year period significantly predicted worsened social distancing fears during COVID-19.
  • Plasticity in older infants’ perception of non-native speech sounds: The role of selective attention in context
    Panneton, Robin; Ostroff, Wendy; Bhullar, Naureen (2024)
    Developmental plasticity is the ability of extant conditions and circumstances to increase variability in phenotypic expression throughout the lifespan. During human infancy, plasticity expands and contracts depending on domains of functioning, developmental history, and timing. In terms of language processing, young infants attend to and discriminate contrastive sounds within both native and non-native phonetic systems, but become selectively attuned to native sounds by the end of the first year. However, studies relevant to this decreasing sensitivity in phoneme perception have not always included factors that are emerging as powerful promoters of attention such as infant-directed speech (IDS), synchronous multimodal face+voice presentations, and female speakers. We investigated whether English-learning 11-month-olds would discriminate a non-native Hindi phoneme contrast with these factors in place. Results showed significant discrimination of the Hindi contrast, regardless of speech register, provided the sounds were presented by a dynamic female speaker. Interestingly, when a dynamic male IDS speaker was used, no significant discrimination was found. These results demonstrate plasticity in non-native speech perception contingent upon inducing and supporting selective attention. Multimodal information emanating from female speakers promoted perception of challenging non-native sounds, demonstrating the power of context for language learning in early development.
  • Using artificial intelligence to assess personal qualities in college admissions
    Lira, Benjamin; Gardner, Margo; Quirk, Abigail; Stone, Cathlyn; Rao, Arjun; Ungar, Lyle; Hutt, Stephen; Hickman, Louis; D'Mello, Sidney K.; Duckworth, Angela L. (AAAS, 2023-10-13)
    Personal qualities like prosocial purpose and leadership predict important life outcomes, including college success. Unfortunately, the holistic assessment of personal qualities in college admissions is opaque and resource intensive. Can artificial intelligence (AI) advance the goals of holistic admissions? While cost-effective, AI has been criticized as a "black box" that may inadvertently penalize already disadvantaged subgroups when used in high-stakes settings. Here, we consider an AI approach to assessing personal qualities that aims to overcome these limitations. Research assistants and admissions officers first identified the presence/absence of seven personal qualities in n = 3131 applicant essays describing extracurricular and work experiences. Next, we fine-tuned pretrained language models with these ratings, which successfully reproduced human codes across demographic subgroups. Last, in a national sample (N = 309,594), computer-generated scores collectively demonstrated incremental validity for predicting 6-year college graduation. We discuss challenges and opportunities of AI for assessing personal qualities.
  • Parent-child Neural Similarity: Measurements, Antecedents, and Consequences
    Qu, Yang; Zhou, Zexi; Lee, Tae-Ho (Frontiers, 2023-03-29)
    Children and their parents are wired to connect as it provides the foundation for developing children to adapt to an increasingly complex environment. Although extensive studies demonstrate the importance of parent-child dyadic similarity at the behavioral, psychological, and physiological levels in fostering children’s learning and psychological wellbeing, little is known about parent- child similarity at the neural level until recently. Drawing on our own work and the work by other scholars, this review summarizes recent advances in empirical research on parent-child neural similarity. Specifically, this review elaborates the theoretical importance of studying parent-child neural similarity and showcases how parent-child neural similarity is assessed using di􀀀erent neuroimaging approaches. We further synthesize empirical evidence about the contextual and individual factors thatmay contribute to variability in parent-child neural similarity, summarize how such neural similarity is related to di􀀀erent aspects of child adjustment, and highlight important directions for future research. Taken together, we hope that this integrative review can demonstrate cutting-edge research that explores neural similarity in parent-child dyads, and provide researchers with a clear roadmap to examine parent-child neural similarity in order to gain a better understanding of parental socialization process and brain development.
  • Family Cohesion Moderates the Relation between Parent–Child Neural Connectivity Pattern Similarity and Youth’s Emotional Adjustment
    Zhou, Zexi; Chen, Ya-Yun; Yang, Beiming; Qu, Yang; Lee, Tae-Ho (Society for Neuroscience, 2023-08-16)
    Despite a recent surge in research examining parent–child neural similarity using fMRI, there remains a need for further investigation into how such similarity may play a role in children’s emotional adjustment. Moreover, no prior studies explored the potential contextual factors that may moderate the link between parent–child neural similarity and children’s developmental outcomes. In this study, 32 parent–youth dyads (parents: Mage = 43.53 years, 72% female; children: Mage = 11.69 years, 41% female) watched an emotion-evoking animated film while being scanned using fMRI. We first quantified how similarly emotion network interacts with other brain regions in responding to the emotion-evoking film between parents and their children. We then examined how such parent–child neural similarity is associated with children’s emotional adjustment, with attention to the moderating role of family cohesion. Results revealed that higher parent–child similarity in functional connectivity pattern during movie viewing was associated with better emotional adjustment, including less negative affect, lower anxiety, and greater ego resilience in youth. Moreover, such associations were significant only among families with higher cohesion, but not among families with lower cohesion. The findings advance our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying how children thrive by being in sync and attuned with their parents, and provide novel empirical evidence that the effects of parent–child concordance at the neural level on children’s development are contextually dependent.
  • Brain Similarity as a Protective Factor in the Longitudinal Pathway Linking Household Chaos, Parenting, and Substance Use
    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Lee, Tae-Ho; Clinchard, Claudia; Lindenmuth, Morgan; Brieant, Alexis; Steinberg, Laurence; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Casas, Brooks (Elsevier, 2023-04-29)
    Background: Socioecological factors such as family environment and parenting behaviors contribute to the development of substance use. While biobehavioral synchrony has been suggested as the foundation for resilience that can modulate environmental effects on development, the role of brain similarity that attenuates deleterious effects of environmental contexts has not been clearly understood. We tested whether parent-adolescent neural similarity—the level of pattern similarity between parent-adolescent functional brain connectivity representing the level of attunement within each dyad—moderates the longitudinal pathways in which household chaos (a stressor) predicts adolescent substance use directly and indirectly via parental monitoring. Methods: In a sample of 70 parent-adolescent dyads, similarity in resting-state brain activity was identified using multipattern connectivity similarity estimation. Adolescents and parents reported on household chaos and parental monitoring, and adolescent substance use was assessed at a 1-year follow-up. Results: The moderated mediation model indicated that for adolescents with low neural similarity, but not high neural similarity, greater household chaos predicted higher substance use over time directly and indirectly via lower parental monitoring. Our data also indicated differential susceptibility in the overall association between household chaos and substance use: Adolescents with low neural similarity exhibited high substance use under high household chaos but low substance use under low household chaos. Conclusions: Neural similarity acts as a protective factor such that the detrimental effects of suboptimal family environment and parenting behaviors on the development of adolescent health risk behaviors may be attenuated by neural similarity within parent-adolescent bonds.
  • Noradrenaline tracks emotional modulation of attention in human amygdala
    Bang, Dan; Luo, Yi; Barbosa, Leonardo S.; Batten, Seth R.; Hadj-Amar, Beniamino; Twomey, Thomas; Melville, Natalie; White, Jason P.; Torres, Alexis; Celaya, Xavier; Ramaiah, Priya; McClure, Samuel M.; Brewer, Gene A.; Bina, Robert W.; Lohrenz, Terry; Casas, Brooks; Chiu, Pearl H.; Vannucci, Marina; Kishida, Kenneth T.; Witcher, Mark R.; Montague, P. Read (Elsevier, 2023-11-20)
    The noradrenaline (NA) system is one of the brain’s major neuromodulatory systems; it originates in a small midbrain nucleus, the locus coeruleus (LC), and projects widely throughout the brain. The LC-NA system is believed to regulate arousal and attention and is a pharmacological target in multiple clinical conditions. Yet our understanding of its role in health and disease has been impeded by a lack of direct recordings in humans. Here, we address this problem by showing that electrochemical estimates of sub-second NA dynamics can be obtained using clinical depth electrodes implanted for epilepsy monitoring. We made these recordings in the amygdala, an evolutionarily ancient structure that supports emotional processing, and receives dense LC-NA projections, while patients (n = 3) performed a visual affective oddball task. The task was designed to induce different cognitive states, with the oddball stimuli involving emotionally evocative images, which varied in terms of arousal (low versus high) and valence (negative versus positive). Consistent with theory, the NA estimates tracked the emotional modulation of attention, with a stronger oddball response in a high-arousal state. Parallel estimates of pupil dilation, a common behavioral proxy for LC-NA activity, supported a hypothesis that pupil-NA coupling changes with cognitive state, with the pupil and NA estimates being positively correlated for oddball stimuli in a high-arousal but not a lowarousal state. Our study provides proof of concept that neuromodulator monitoring is now possible using depth electrodes in standard clinical use.
  • Positive Valence Contributes to Hyperarticulation in Maternal Speech to Infants and Puppies
    Panneton, Robin; Cristia, Alejandrina; Taylor, Caroline; Moon, Christine (Cambridge University Press, 2023-07)
    Infant-directed speech often has hyperarticulated features, such as point vowels whose formants are further apart than in adult-directed speech. This increased “vowel space” may reflect the caretaker’s effort to speak more clearly to infants, thus benefiting language processing. However, hyperarticulation may also result from more positive valence (e.g., speaking with positive vocal emotion) often found in mothers’ speech to infants. This study was designed to replicate others who have found hyperarticulation in maternal speech to their 6-month-olds, but also to examine their speech to a non-human infant (i.e., a puppy). We rated both kinds of maternal speech for their emotional valence and recorded mothers’ speech to a human adult. We found that mothers produced more positively valenced utterances and some hyperarticulation in both their infant- and puppy-directed speech, compared to their adult-directed speech. This finding promotes looking at maternal speech from a multi-faceted perspective that includes emotional state.
  • Prior behavior and wording of norm nudge requests shape compliance and reciprocity
    Pittarello, Andrea; Schmidt, Thekla; Segel, Assaf; Mayo, Ruth (Wiley, 2023-03)
    We examined the effect of explicit norm nudge requests for compliance in a field study on workplace dishonesty and three controlled experiments on reciprocity. The requests were presented either with affirmation (e.g., "please pay" and "please remember to pay") or negation (e.g., "please, do not forget to pay") and solicited by either one person or three people who were also the beneficiaries of compliance. We also explored how these requests affected first time and repeated behaviors. We found no effect of the number of people soliciting the requests. However, we did find that for first-time behaviors, any request increased compliance compared with no request, and those worded with affirmation were more effective than those worded with negation. We replicated this pattern in repeated behaviors-both at the group and at the individual level-but only when the initial compliance, before the request, was low. Importantly, no increase emerged when individuals did not receive requests, showing that requests only, and not regression to the mean, explained the effect.
  • The orthographic/phonological neighbourhood size effect and set size
    Guitard, Dominic; Miller, Leonie M.; Neath, Ian; Roodenrys, Steven (Sage Publications, 2023-04)
    A growing number of studies have shown that on serial recall tests, words with more orthographic/phonological neighbours are better recalled than otherwise comparable words with fewer neighbours, the so-called neighbourhood size effect. Greeno et al. replicated this result when using a large stimulus pool but found a reverse neighbourhood size effect-better recall of words with fewer rather than more neighbours-when using a small stimulus pool. We report three registered experiments that further examine the role of set size in the neighbourhood size effect. Experiment 1 used the large pool from Greeno et al. and replicated their finding of a large-neighbourhood advantage. Experiment 2 used the small pool from Greeno et al. but found no difference in recall between the large and small neighbourhood conditions. Experiment 3 also used a small pool but the small pool was randomly generated for each subject from the large pool used in Experiment 1. This resulted in a typical large neighbourhood advantage. We suggest that set size is not critical to the direction of the neighbourhood size effect, with a large neighbourhood advantage appearing with both small and large pools.
  • Self-control and cooperation in childhood as antecedents of less moral disengagement in adolescence
    Gülseven, Zehra; Yu, Mark Vincent B.; Zarrett, Nicole; Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Simpkins, Sandra D. (Cambridge University Press, 2023-02-26)
    Moral disengagement is a social cognition people use to engage in wrongdoings even when they know it is wrong. However, little is known about the antecedents that predict moral disengagement. The current study focuses on the development of self-control and cooperation during middle childhood as two antecedents of moral disengagement among 1,103 children (50% female; 77% White, 12% Black, 6% Hispanic, and 5% other). Children's self-control at age 8 and growth in self-control from age 8 to 11 were positively linked to adolescents seeing themselves as having self-control at age 15, which then predicted less moral disengagement at age 18. Children's cooperation at age 8 also was positively linked to adolescents' self-views of cooperation at age 15, which in turn, was associated with less moral disengagement at age 18. These findings demonstrate the potential of self-control and cooperation as intrapersonal and interpersonal strengths during middle childhood for mitigating moral disengagement 10 years later.
  • From terrible twos to sassy sixes: The development of vocabulary and executive functioning across early childhood
    Bruce, Madeleine; Savla, Jyoti; Bell, Martha Ann (Wiley, 2023-04)
    Across the early childhood period of development, young children exhibit considerable growth in their executive functioning (EF) and vocabulary abilities. Understanding the developmental trajectory of these seemingly interrelated processes is important as both early vocabulary and EF have been shown to predict critical academic and socio-emotional outcomes later in childhood. Although previous research suggests that EF and vocabulary are correlated in early childhood, much of the existing longitudinal research has focused on unidirectional relations among preschool child samples. The current large-scale study, therefore, sought to examine whether children's vocabulary and EF abilities are bidirectionally related over time across four measurement waves in early childhood (i.e., at ages 2, 3, 4, and 6). At each timepoint, children's vocabulary skills were positively correlated with their concurrent EF abilities. After controlling for child sex and maternal education status, the best-fitting, cross-lagged panel model was a unidirectional model whereby children's early vocabulary scores predicted their later EF performance at each timepoint. Although age 2 EF significantly predicted age 3 vocabulary size, this association was no longer significant after accounting for maternal education status. Our results illustrate that vocabulary size plays an important role in predicting children's later EF performance across various timepoints in early childhood, even after controlling for children's initial EF scores. These findings have important implications for intervention research as fostering early vocabulary acquisition may serve as a possible avenue for improving EF outcomes in young children.
  • Comparison between the Effects of Acute Physical and Psychosocial Stress on Feedback-Based Learning
    Yang, Xiao; Nackley, Brittany; Friedman, Bruce H. (MDPI, 2023-07-26)
    Stress modulates feedback-based learning, a process that has been implicated in declining mental function in aging and mental disorders. While acute physical and psychosocial stressors have been used interchangeably in studies on feedback-based learning, the two types of stressors involve distinct physiological and psychological processes. Whether the two types of stressors differentially influence feedback processing remains unclear. The present study compared the effects of physical and psychosocial stressors on feedback-based learning. Ninety-six subjects (Mage = 19.11 years; 50 female) completed either a cold pressor task (CPT) or mental arithmetic task (MAT), as the physical or psychosocial stressor, while electrocardiography and blood pressure were measured to assess cardiovascular stress reactivity (CVR). Self-ratings on the emotional valence of the stressors were also obtained. A probabilistic learning task was given prior to and after the stressors. Accuracy in selecting positive (Go accuracy) and avoiding negative stimuli (No-go accuracy) were recorded as learning outcomes. Repeated measures ANOVA and multiple regressions were used to compare the effects of two stressors and examine the effects of CVR and valence on the learning outcomes. The results showed that although the effects of CPT and MAT on feedback processing were not different, CVR and valence influenced Go and No-go accuracy, respectively. The results suggest that stress-modulated feedback-based learning involves multiple pathways and underscore the link between CVR and reward sensitivity. The findings have clinical implications and may contribute to a better understanding of human behavioral systems.