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  • Use of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures to Assess the Effectiveness of Hybrid Psychiatric Visits
    O'Brien, Virginia C.; Kablinger, Anita S.; Ko, Hayoung; Jones, Sydney B.; McNamara, Robert S.; Phenes, Ashlie R.; Hankey, Maria Stack; Gatto, Alyssa J.; Tenzer, Martha M.; Sharp, Hunter D.; Cooper, Lee D. (American Psychiatric Association, 2024-06-12)
    Objective: Little empirical evidence exists to support the effectiveness of hybrid psychiatric care, defined as care delivered through a combination of telephone, videoconferencing, and in-person visits. The authors aimed to investigate the effectiveness of hybrid psychiatric care compared with outpatient waitlist groups, assessed with patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). Method: Participants were recruited from an adult psychiatry clinic waitlist on which the most common primary diagnoses were unipolar depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and bipolar disorder. Patients (N=148) were randomly assigned to one of two waitlist groups that completed PROMs once or monthly before treatment initiation. PROMs were used to assess symptoms of depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9]), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 [GAD-7]), and daily psychological functioning (Brief Adjustment Scale-6 [BASE-6]). Patient measures were summarized descriptively with means, medians, and SDs and then compared by using the Kruskal-Wallis test; associated effect sizes were calculated. PROM scores for patients who received hybrid psychiatric treatment during a different period (N=272) were compared with scores of the waitlist groups. Results: PROM assessments of patients who engaged in hybrid care indicated significant improvements in symptom severity compared with the waitlist groups, regardless of the number of PROMs completed while patients were on the waitlist. Between the hybrid care and waitlist groups, the effect size for the PHQ-9 score was moderate (d=0.66); effect sizes were small for the GAD-7 (d=0.46) and BASE-6 (d=0.45) scores. Conclusions: The findings indicate the clinical effectiveness of hybrid care and that PROMs can be used to assess this effectiveness.
  • #InspireInclusion: Addressing the Undue Service Burden Placed on Women Faculty in Psychology
    Breaux, Rosanna (The Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 2024-03-08)
  • Teleoperator-Robot-Human Interaction in Manufacturing: Perspectives from Industry, Robot Manufacturers, and Researchers
    Kim, Sunwook; Hernandez, Ivan; Nussbaum, Maury A.; Lim, Sol (Informa, 2024-02-08)
    OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS: Industrial robots have become an important aspect in modern industry. In the context of human-robot collaboration, enabling teleoperated robots to work in close proximity to local/onsite humans can provide new opportunities to improve human engagement in a distributed workplace. Interviews with industry stakeholders highlighted several potential benefits of such teleoperator-robot-human collaboration (tRHC), including the application of tRHC to tasks requiring both expertise and manual dexterity (e.g., maintenance and highly skilled tasks in sectors including construction, manufacturing, and healthcare), as well as opportunities to expand job accessibility for individuals with disabilities and older individuals. However, interviewees also indicated potential challenges of tRHC, particularly related to human perception (e.g., perceiving remote environments), safety, and trust. Given these challenges, and the current limited information on the practical value and implementation of tRHC, we propose several future research directions, with a focus on human factors and ergonomics, to help realize the potential benefits of tRHC.
  • Examining the role of urgency in predicting binge size in bulimia nervosa
    Davis, Heather A.; Smith, Gregory T. (Frontiers, 2023-05-31)
    Greater binge size within bulimia nervosa is associated with elevated distress and impairment. Theoretical models posit that emotion dysregulation predicts binge eating, but little research has investigated the potential for dispositional traits that reflect difficulty in emotion regulation to predict binge size among women with bulimia nervosa. Research supports that negative urgency, the tendency to act rashly when feeling distressed, is associated with binge eating behavior among individuals with bulimia nervosa. Relatively fewer studies have explored associations between binge eating and positive urgency, the tendency to act rashly when feeling extreme positive affect. The urgency traits may predict greater binge size within bulimia nervosa. The current study sought to examine negative urgency and positive urgency as predictors of test meal intake in a sample of 50 women, n = 21 with bulimia nervosa and n = 29 healthy controls. Dispositional levels of positive urgency, negative urgency, positive affect, and negative affect were measured prior to a laboratory binge eating paradigm. Participants in the bulimia nervosa group scored higher on negative urgency, positive urgency, and negative affect than participants in the control group. Across participants, lower levels of negative affect were associated with greater test meal intake. Elevated levels of positive urgency predicted significantly greater test meal intake, but only for participants with bulimia nervosa. No other dispositional traits predicted test meal intake when the interaction of positive urgency and group was included in the model. Findings suggest positive urgency is an underappreciated, but potentially important, risk factor for greater binge size in bulimia nervosa.
  • Multisensory integration and maternal sensitivity are related to each other and predictive of expressive vocabulary in 24-month-olds
    Bruce, Madeleine D.; Panneton, Robin K.; Taylor, Caroline (Elsevier, 2021-10-05)
    Multisensory integration (MSI) is the ability to combine temporally synchronous, amodally specified sensory information to create rich, coordinated perceptual experiences. In early development, attention is directed toward such information in both social contexts (e.g., human speakers) and nonsocial contexts (e.g., multimodal toys). Parenting behaviors may support and sculpt multisensory integration by providing children with opportunities to experience amodally specified information (e.g., contingent face-to-face interactions). This study examined (a) whether 24-month-olds’ MSI abilities differed as a function of context (social or nonsocial) and competition for attention (low or high), (b) whether MSI predicted expressive vocabulary, and (c) whether maternal sensitivity (MS) was related to both MSI and language. A total of 32 24-month-olds were tested in the Multisensory Attention Assessment Protocol, an audiovisual task that presents laterally positioned social/nonsocial events with and without a central distractor. Their mothers completed the MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventories and participated in a free-play period with their children for MS coding. Results showed MSI in both social and nonsocial conditions (i.e., toddlers paid more attention to the “match”), but only the ability to maintain attention to the social match was related to toddlers’ expressive vocabulary. In addition, MS was positively correlated with toddlers’ expressive language and social MSI performance. Taken together, the pattern of results shows important relations between emerging integration abilities and parenting behavior as well as the ability of both factors to positively influence word learning during early toddlerhood.
  • A collection of 157 individual neuromelanin-sensitive images accompanied by non-linear neuromelanin-sensitive atlas and a probabilistic locus coeruleus atlas
    Lee, Tae-Ho; Kim, Sun Hyung; Neal, Joshua; Katz, Benjamin; Kim, Il Hwan (2024-02)
    The current dataset aims to support and enhance the research reliability of neuromelanin regions in the brain- stem, such as locus coeruleus (LC), by offering raw neuromelanin-sensitive images. The dataset includes raw neuromelanin-sensitive images from 157 healthy individuals (8–64 years old). In addition, leveraging individual neuromelanin-sensitive images, a non-linear neuromelanin- sensitive atlas, generated through an iterative warping pro- cess, is included to tackle the common challenge of a limited field of view in neuromelanin-sensitive images. Finally, the dataset encompasses a probabilistic LC atlas generated through a majority voting approach with pre-existing multiple atlas-based segmentations. This process entails warping pre-existing atlases onto individual spaces and identifying voxels with a majority consensus of over 50 % across the atlases. This LC probabilistic atlas can minimize uncertainty variance associated with choosing a specific single atlas.
  • Piloting a one-day parent-only intervention in the treatment of youth with anxiety disorders: child and family-level outcomes
    Cobham, Vanessa E.; Radtke, Sarah R.; Hawkins, Ingrid; Jordan, Michele; Ali, Nasriah R.; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Sanders, Matthew R. (2024-01-13)
    Objective: Parent-only cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions have promise for youth with anxiety disorders. Fear-Less Triple P (FLTP) is one such intervention that has been found comparable to child-focused CBT. Although traditionally administered in six sessions, a one-day workshop format of FLTP was developed to improve accessibility. The current study compared the effectiveness of the six-session and one-day workshop formats. Method: Seventy-three youth (mean age, 8.4 years; 74% male) were randomized to traditional FLTP (6-week group) or the one-day workshop format. Anxiety diagnostic status, self- and parent-reported anxiety symptoms scores, independent evaluator-rated improvement, treatment satisfaction, and measures of family functioning were included to assess treatment outcome. Data were collected prior to treatment, and 1-week, 6-months, and 12-months following treatment. Results: Both conditions resulted in significant improvement in child anxiety symptom scores per parent report (on both questionnaire and diagnostic interview measures). Furthermore, significant decreases in sibling anxiety were observed in both treatment conditions. There were no statistically significant differences between conditions on any outcome measure. Conclusions: Results of this study add to the growing evidence that brief, low-intensity, parent-only interventions can effectively target child psychopathology. These brief interventions are ideal for families for whom the resources and time required to commit to a standard multi-week intervention are prohibitive.
  • 5-year follow-up of adolescents with social anxiety disorder: Current functioning during COVID-19
    Carlton, Corinne N.; Garcia, Katelyn M.; Honaker, Makayla; Richey, John A.; Ollendick, Thomas H. (Elsevier, 2023-04)
    The present study followed-up adolescents with social anxiety disorder (SAD) during the COVID-19 pandemic, approximately 5-years following their participation in an Attention Bias Modification Training (ABMT) program (Ollendick et al., 2019). The current study aimed to evaluate current functioning and quality of life (QoL) during the emerging adulthood period. Participants included 27 young adults who completed a randomized controlled trial of ABMT and were available for follow-up. Participants filled out self-report measures of QoL and functioning and underwent a clinical interview to assess current severity of social anxiety. Clinician-rated symptoms of SAD significantly decreased from post-treatment to 5-year follow-up. Additionally, results demonstrated that social anxiety severity was significantly related to poorer self-reported physical and psychological health as well as poorer functioning with regard to social distancing fears during COVID-19. Lastly, when evaluating change in symptoms over time, increases in social anxiety severity over a 5-year period significantly predicted worsened social distancing fears during COVID-19.
  • What does "staying well" after depression mean? Chronic low grade symptomatology after treatment for depression is common
    Strege, Marlene V.; Richey, John A.; Siegle, Greg J. (Elsevier, 2022-08-24)
    Background: Persistent low grade depression symptoms are common and impairing in major depressive disorder (MDD) yet rarely reported in treatment follow-up studies (Judd et al., 1998a; Kennedy et al., 2004), suggesting that extant sustained remission rates may not reflect this important clinical feature. Furthermore, no long-term MDD treatment follow-up study has reported on quality of life ratings across functioning levels and years throughout the follow-up period, thus the severity, breadth, and persistence of functional impairment remain unclear. Accordingly, the current study evaluated the course of MDD with consideration of low grade depressive symptomatology and holistic features (e.g., quality of life). Methods: We report long-term (9–14 years) follow-up data from individuals with MDD (N = 37) who underwent either Cognitive Therapy (CBT) or a course of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. Patients provided retrospective reports of depression symptoms and quality of life in the years following treatment. Results: Chronic depression symptoms (most often mild in severity) and decreased quality of life in multiple domains are frequent and suggest poorer sustained remission rates than previously observed in the literature. Limitations: Study limitations include small sample size recruited via convenience sampling methods. Conclusions: Findings support a conceptualization of depression recovery that entails persistent symptoms and vulnerabilities. Clinical recommendations are provided for discussing these features of depression recovery with patients.
  • Plasticity in older infants’ perception of non-native speech sounds: The role of selective attention in context
    Panneton, Robin K.; Ostroff, Wendy; Bhullar, Naureen (2024)
    Developmental plasticity is the ability of extant conditions and circumstances to increase variability in phenotypic expression throughout the lifespan. During human infancy, plasticity expands and contracts depending on domains of functioning, developmental history, and timing. In terms of language processing, young infants attend to and discriminate contrastive sounds within both native and non-native phonetic systems, but become selectively attuned to native sounds by the end of the first year. However, studies relevant to this decreasing sensitivity in phoneme perception have not always included factors that are emerging as powerful promoters of attention such as infant-directed speech (IDS), synchronous multimodal face+voice presentations, and female speakers. We investigated whether English-learning 11-month-olds would discriminate a non-native Hindi phoneme contrast with these factors in place. Results showed significant discrimination of the Hindi contrast, regardless of speech register, provided the sounds were presented by a dynamic female speaker. Interestingly, when a dynamic male IDS speaker was used, no significant discrimination was found. These results demonstrate plasticity in non-native speech perception contingent upon inducing and supporting selective attention. Multimodal information emanating from female speakers promoted perception of challenging non-native sounds, demonstrating the power of context for language learning in early development.
  • The interaction of mental health and race and ethnicity in juvenile justice placement decisions
    Margherio, Samantha M.; Schmidt, Adam T.; Boekankamp, Danielle; Espinosa, Erin M. (Wiley, 2023-09-12)
    We investigated the interaction of mental health needs and race and ethnicity on juvenile justice placement decisions. Mental health diagnoses and placement decisions were collected for a large (n = 9765) sample of justice-involved youth in the state of Texas from 2007 to 2008. Analyses revealed Black and Hispanic youth were overrepresented in secure facilities, although race and ethnicity were not predictive of disposition decisions beyond legal variables. Substance use interacted with race and ethnicity such that Black and Hispanic youth with substance use diagnoses were less likely than non-Hispanic White youth to be placed in secure settings. Youth with internalizing or externalizing mental health diagnoses received similar placement decisions regardless of race or ethnicity. Findings are in contrast to prior investigations of the interaction of race/ethnicity and mental health needs on placement decisions, perhaps due to the use of mental health diagnoses in the current study rather than other indicators of mental health need. Future research should investigate potential bias present within psychosocial evaluations and resulting mental health diagnoses within the juvenile justice system to inform their utility in the placement decision-making process, and how these social identities interact to influence each step along the juvenile justice system pathway to identify potential points of biased decision making that may compound the adverse effects of juvenile justice system involvement for youth.
  • The role of perceived parent drinking motives on alcohol use among adolescents with and without childhood Attention/Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder
    Kempker-Margherio, Samantha; Pedersen, Sarah; Wang, Frances; Kennedy, Traci; Walther, Christine; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Pelham, William; Molina, Brooke (American Psychological Association, 2024)
    Objective: Parent history of alcohol-related problems and antisocial behaviors contribute to adolescent alcohol use and are associated with offspring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Youth with ADHD may be susceptible to intergenerational transmission of alcohol-related cognitions, which may model drinking motives that enhance risk for adolescent alcohol use. We examined whether childhood ADHD and parent history of alcohol use disorder, with or without antisociality, were associated with adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ drinking motives and whether these perceptions predicted their alcohol use behaviors. Method: Adolescents (N = 199; 56% with ADHD; Mage = 15.73) completed the Drinking Motives Questionnaire regarding perceptions of their parents’ drinking motives. Participants subsequently reported their past-year alcohol use behaviors (Mage = 16.95). Parents reported their history of alcohol-related problems and antisocial symptoms. Covariates included adolescent gender (7% girls), race (9% self-identified Black), and parental education and marital status. Results: Perceived parent drinking motives were highest for social and lowest for conformity motives, consistent with adult self-reports in the literature. Parent alcohol use and antisociality history predicted perceptions of parent drinking motives, and child ADHD only predicted perceptions of parent social drinking motives. Perceived parent drinking motives predicted adolescent alcohol use, but only among youth without ADHD. Conclusion: Findings reflect the potential importance of assessing adolescent perceptions of parent drinking motives for adolescents without ADHD and a possible need for supporting parents in communicating about their own alcohol use. Future research should consider alternative strategies (e.g., assessing implicit cognitions) for studying the link between alcohol-related cognitions and behaviors for adolescents with ADHD.
  • Impacts of COVID-19 quarantine and isolation on adolescent social functioning
    Breaux, Rosanna; Cash, Annah R.; Lewis, Jasmine; Garcia, Katelyn M.; Dvorsky, Melissa R.; Becker, Stephen P. (Elsevier, 2023-06)
    This review discusses research conducted globally between March 2020 and March 2023 examining the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescent social functioning, including their lifestyle, extracurricular activities, family environment, peer environment, and social skills. Research highlights the widespread impact, with largely negative effects. However, a handful of studies support improved quality of relationships for some young people. Study findings underscore the importance of technology for fostering social communication and connectedness during periods of isolation and quarantine. Most studies specifically examining social skills were cross-sectional and conducted in clinical populations, such as autistic or socially anxious youth. As such, it is critical that ongoing research examines the long-term social impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, and ways to promote meaningful social connectedness via virtual interactions.
  • Using artificial intelligence to assess personal qualities in college admissions
    Lira, Benjamin; Gardner, Margo; Quirk, Abigail; Stone, Cathlyn; Rao, Arjun; Ungar, Lyle; Hutt, Stephen; Hickman, Louis; D'Mello, Sidney K.; Duckworth, Angela L. (AAAS, 2023-10-13)
    Personal qualities like prosocial purpose and leadership predict important life outcomes, including college success. Unfortunately, the holistic assessment of personal qualities in college admissions is opaque and resource intensive. Can artificial intelligence (AI) advance the goals of holistic admissions? While cost-effective, AI has been criticized as a "black box" that may inadvertently penalize already disadvantaged subgroups when used in high-stakes settings. Here, we consider an AI approach to assessing personal qualities that aims to overcome these limitations. Research assistants and admissions officers first identified the presence/absence of seven personal qualities in n = 3131 applicant essays describing extracurricular and work experiences. Next, we fine-tuned pretrained language models with these ratings, which successfully reproduced human codes across demographic subgroups. Last, in a national sample (N = 309,594), computer-generated scores collectively demonstrated incremental validity for predicting 6-year college graduation. We discuss challenges and opportunities of AI for assessing personal qualities.
  • Parent-child Neural Similarity: Measurements, Antecedents, and Consequences
    Qu, Yang; Zhou, Zexi; Lee, Tae-Ho (Frontiers, 2023-03-29)
    Children and their parents are wired to connect as it provides the foundation for developing children to adapt to an increasingly complex environment. Although extensive studies demonstrate the importance of parent-child dyadic similarity at the behavioral, psychological, and physiological levels in fostering children’s learning and psychological wellbeing, little is known about parent- child similarity at the neural level until recently. Drawing on our own work and the work by other scholars, this review summarizes recent advances in empirical research on parent-child neural similarity. Specifically, this review elaborates the theoretical importance of studying parent-child neural similarity and showcases how parent-child neural similarity is assessed using di􀀀erent neuroimaging approaches. We further synthesize empirical evidence about the contextual and individual factors thatmay contribute to variability in parent-child neural similarity, summarize how such neural similarity is related to di􀀀erent aspects of child adjustment, and highlight important directions for future research. Taken together, we hope that this integrative review can demonstrate cutting-edge research that explores neural similarity in parent-child dyads, and provide researchers with a clear roadmap to examine parent-child neural similarity in order to gain a better understanding of parental socialization process and brain development.
  • Family Cohesion Moderates the Relation between Parent–Child Neural Connectivity Pattern Similarity and Youth’s Emotional Adjustment
    Zhou, Zexi; Chen, Ya-Yun; Yang, Beiming; Qu, Yang; Lee, Tae-Ho (Society for Neuroscience, 2023-08-16)
    Despite a recent surge in research examining parent–child neural similarity using fMRI, there remains a need for further investigation into how such similarity may play a role in children’s emotional adjustment. Moreover, no prior studies explored the potential contextual factors that may moderate the link between parent–child neural similarity and children’s developmental outcomes. In this study, 32 parent–youth dyads (parents: Mage = 43.53 years, 72% female; children: Mage = 11.69 years, 41% female) watched an emotion-evoking animated film while being scanned using fMRI. We first quantified how similarly emotion network interacts with other brain regions in responding to the emotion-evoking film between parents and their children. We then examined how such parent–child neural similarity is associated with children’s emotional adjustment, with attention to the moderating role of family cohesion. Results revealed that higher parent–child similarity in functional connectivity pattern during movie viewing was associated with better emotional adjustment, including less negative affect, lower anxiety, and greater ego resilience in youth. Moreover, such associations were significant only among families with higher cohesion, but not among families with lower cohesion. The findings advance our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying how children thrive by being in sync and attuned with their parents, and provide novel empirical evidence that the effects of parent–child concordance at the neural level on children’s development are contextually dependent.
  • Brain Similarity as a Protective Factor in the Longitudinal Pathway Linking Household Chaos, Parenting, and Substance Use
    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Lee, Tae-Ho; Clinchard, Claudia; Lindenmuth, Morgan; Brieant, Alexis; Steinberg, Laurence; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Casas, Brooks (Elsevier, 2023-04-29)
    Background: Socioecological factors such as family environment and parenting behaviors contribute to the development of substance use. While biobehavioral synchrony has been suggested as the foundation for resilience that can modulate environmental effects on development, the role of brain similarity that attenuates deleterious effects of environmental contexts has not been clearly understood. We tested whether parent-adolescent neural similarity—the level of pattern similarity between parent-adolescent functional brain connectivity representing the level of attunement within each dyad—moderates the longitudinal pathways in which household chaos (a stressor) predicts adolescent substance use directly and indirectly via parental monitoring. Methods: In a sample of 70 parent-adolescent dyads, similarity in resting-state brain activity was identified using multipattern connectivity similarity estimation. Adolescents and parents reported on household chaos and parental monitoring, and adolescent substance use was assessed at a 1-year follow-up. Results: The moderated mediation model indicated that for adolescents with low neural similarity, but not high neural similarity, greater household chaos predicted higher substance use over time directly and indirectly via lower parental monitoring. Our data also indicated differential susceptibility in the overall association between household chaos and substance use: Adolescents with low neural similarity exhibited high substance use under high household chaos but low substance use under low household chaos. Conclusions: Neural similarity acts as a protective factor such that the detrimental effects of suboptimal family environment and parenting behaviors on the development of adolescent health risk behaviors may be attenuated by neural similarity within parent-adolescent bonds.
  • Noradrenaline tracks emotional modulation of attention in human amygdala
    Bang, Dan; Luo, Yi; Barbosa, Leonardo S.; Batten, Seth R.; Hadj-Amar, Beniamino; Twomey, Thomas; Melville, Natalie; White, Jason P.; Torres, Alexis; Celaya, Xavier; Ramaiah, Priya; McClure, Samuel M.; Brewer, Gene A.; Bina, Robert W.; Lohrenz, Terry; Casas, Brooks; Chiu, Pearl H.; Vannucci, Marina; Kishida, Kenneth T.; Witcher, Mark R.; Montague, P. Read (Elsevier, 2023-11-20)
    The noradrenaline (NA) system is one of the brain’s major neuromodulatory systems; it originates in a small midbrain nucleus, the locus coeruleus (LC), and projects widely throughout the brain. The LC-NA system is believed to regulate arousal and attention and is a pharmacological target in multiple clinical conditions. Yet our understanding of its role in health and disease has been impeded by a lack of direct recordings in humans. Here, we address this problem by showing that electrochemical estimates of sub-second NA dynamics can be obtained using clinical depth electrodes implanted for epilepsy monitoring. We made these recordings in the amygdala, an evolutionarily ancient structure that supports emotional processing, and receives dense LC-NA projections, while patients (n = 3) performed a visual affective oddball task. The task was designed to induce different cognitive states, with the oddball stimuli involving emotionally evocative images, which varied in terms of arousal (low versus high) and valence (negative versus positive). Consistent with theory, the NA estimates tracked the emotional modulation of attention, with a stronger oddball response in a high-arousal state. Parallel estimates of pupil dilation, a common behavioral proxy for LC-NA activity, supported a hypothesis that pupil-NA coupling changes with cognitive state, with the pupil and NA estimates being positively correlated for oddball stimuli in a high-arousal but not a lowarousal state. Our study provides proof of concept that neuromodulator monitoring is now possible using depth electrodes in standard clinical use.